Pharmacology I Study Guide-2.docx

Main function gas exchange in alveoli co2 removed

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Main function: gas exchange in alveoli (CO2 removed from blood and O2 transferred into blood) Controlled by medulla Parasympathetic NS stimulate diaphragm contraction and inspiration Vagal stimulation bronchoconstriction Sympathetic NS increased rate and depth of respirations and dilation of bronchi Atelectasis collapse of lung tissue/alveoli (gas exchange) Pneumonia inflammation/infection of lung tissue Bronchitis narrow bronchi with inflammation/infection (let it run its course) Asthma reversible bronchospasm, hyperactive airway, inflammation (histamine) CF copious amounts of secretions (hereditary) Resp Distress Syndrome RDS low surfactant levels Chapter 54: Drugs Acting on the Respiratory System: Upper Respiratory Tract Antitussives : suppress the cough reflex by acting on the medullary cough center or act as a local anesthetic on resp passages Adverse effects: drying effect, constipation, drowsiness, sedation, GI upset Contraindications: patients that need to cough, asthma and emphysema CAUTION Dextromethorphan (Benylin) control of nonproductive cough by depressing the cough center in the medulla Benzonatate (Tessalon) Anesthetizes cough or stretch receptors in vagal nerve afferent fibers found in lungs, pleura, and respiratory passages. Codeine opioid Decongestants : decrease the overproduction of secretions through vasoconstriction to the upper resp tract Adverse effects: rebound congestion Topical Nasal Decongestants: sympathomimetics causing vasoconstriction leading to decreased edema and inflammation of nasal membranes. Adverse: local stinging and burning, rebound congestion Contraindications: glaucoma, hypertension, DM, thyroid disease, CAD Ephedrine Oxymetazoline (Afrin) Oral Decongestants: drugs taken to decrease nasal congestion related to the common cold, sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis; shrink nasal mucous membrane by stimulating the alpha-adrenergic receptors in nasal mucous membranes. Adverse effects: rebound congestion Pseudoephedrine
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Topical Nasal Steroid Decongestants: used often for allergic rhinitis and decrease inflammation from nasal polyp removal Adverse effects: local burning, dryness of mucosa Beclomethasone (Beclovent) Budesonide (Pulmicort) Dexamethasone (Decadron) Antihistamines : block the release or action of histamine, a chemical released during inflammation that increases secretions, and narrows airways. First generation : have greater anticholinergic effects with resultant drowsiness Hydroxyzine (Vistaril) Meclizine (Antivert) Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) Second generation : less sedating, don’t work as well Cetirizine (Zyrtec) Fexofenadine (Allegra) Loratidine (Claritin) Expectorants : increase a productive cough to clear the airways; increases and eases the output of resp tract fluids by reducing surface tension and liquefying secretions Adverse effects: GI symptoms, HA, dizziness Guaifenesin (Mucinex) SHOULDN’T BE USED <1 WEEK Mucolytics : increase or liquefy secretions to help clear the airway; thins secretions by
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  • Spring '16
  • Loren Martin
  • Adrenergic receptor

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