ISS_225_Lec_9_Personality

2 anal stage 18 months to three years the childs

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2) Anal Stage (18 months to three years). The child’s focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces. Through society’s pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation. In terms of personality, after effects of an anal 5
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Personality fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive). On the opposite end of the spectrum, they may become messy and disorganized (anal expulsive). 3) Phallic Stage (ages three to six). The pleasure zone switches to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boy develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother. Because of this, he becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mother’s affection. During this time, boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings, such as by castrating them. This group of feelings is known as Oedipus Complex (after the Greek Mythology figure who accidentally killed his father and married his mother). A fixation at this stage could result in sexual deviancies (both overindulging and avoidance) and weak or confused sexual identity according to psychoanalysts. 4) Latency Stage (age six to puberty). It’s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers. 5) Genital Stage (puberty on). The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers; with the primary focus of pleasure are the genitals. C. Behavioral Psychology Behavioral Psychology is basically interested in how our behavior results from the stimuli both in the environment and within ourselves. They study, often in minute detail, the behaviors we exhibit while controlling for as many other variables as possible. 1. Classical and Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning. Classical Conditioning was actually discovered accidentally by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). During his experiments, he would put meat powder in the mouths of dogs that had tubes inserted into various organs to measure bodily responses. What he discovered was that the dogs began to salivate before the meat powder was presented to them. Then, the dogs began to salivate as soon as the person feeding them would enter the room. This led to his now famous Classical Conditioning study. Here is a video on Pavlov’s experiment with some fascinating early footage of the original experiment. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI Basically, the findings support the idea that we develop responses to certain stimuli that are not naturally occurring. Pavlov discovered that we make associations, which cause us to generalize our response to one stimulus onto a neutral stimulus it is paired with. Pavlov began pairing a bell sound with the meat powder and found that even when the meat powder was not presented, the dog would eventually begin to salivate after hearing the 6
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