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Late puberty or early adulthood do not experience the

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§Late puberty or early adulthood – do not experience the maturity gapDownloaded by Angelina Hendrie ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|9224197
§Fewer opportunities to engage – restricted environment, limited exposure to anti-social peers.Policy implications§Different approaches required depending on offender typology§While Adolescent Limited Offenders are the largest offender group – their offendingbehaviour is less serious and offending generally resolves itself.§LCP offenders – most serious and continues over a longer period of time. Best todirect limited resources into reducing offending amongst this population.§Aim to prevent issues in early pregnancy and childhood such as poor prenatalnutrition and prenatal drug and alcohol abuse.§Aim to address social environment in high risk households – parenting programsFindings by Laub and Sampson§Desistance linked with specific factors across the life-course§Key factors: family, marriage, school/work, and military service§Informal social control processes are critical in shaping trajectories of crimeInformal Social Control§How a society informally regulates itself§Definition: Reactions of individuals and groups that encourage conformity to lawsand social norms§Examples: shame, ridicule, criticism, disapproval when a member of society doesn’tabide by social rules and normsInformal Social Control (Sampson & Laub)§How a society informally regulates itself§Definition: Reactions of individuals and groups that encourage conformity to lawsand social norms§Examples: shame, ridicule, criticism, disapproval when a member of society doesn’tabide by social rules and norms§Theory included three main components:§An explanation forjuvenile delinquency(e.g., ages 12-18)§An exploration of thetransition from adolescence to adulthood(e.g., ages 18-25)§An explanation foradult criminal behavior(e.g., ages > 25)Explaining Juvenile Delinquency: FamilyDelinquency was mostly explained by factors in the family contextPredictors of persistence in crime:§Harsh and erratic discipline§Lack of parental supervision (especially maternal)§Parental rejection of the childExplaining Change: School and Work TiesDownloaded by Angelina Hendrie ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|9224197
Why do some kids stop offending during adolescence?§School ties and positive school performanceWhy do others stop offending during the transition from adolescence to early adulthood?§Job stability and commitment§Strong employer relationshipsUnderstanding the roles of school and work:§Both indicate presence of Social CapitalExplaining Change in Adulthood: MarriageMarriage was an important predictor of desistance from crimeMarriage quality matters: good quality marriages that were stable over time reducedcriminalityWhy? Because good quality marriages are likely to serve as another form of informalsocial control (e.g., your spouse is unlikely to approve of you engaging in criminalactivity)Marriage reduces time spent with (delinquent) peers/friendsCohabitation in romantic relationships has a similar effect on reducing criminalbehaviour (likely due to the same reasons)Explaining Change: Military Service§Sampson and Laub found that military service decreased criminality during thetransition to adulthood§Argued to be due to informal social control: military service promoted socialresponsibility and gave the men a sense of belonging

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Wit, America, Angelina Hendrie

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