Halleck to the post he found him an ineffectual

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He finally appointed General Henry W. Halleck to the post, he found him an ineffectual strategist Not until March 1864 did Lincoln finally find a general he trusted to command the war effort: Ulysses S. Grant who, Shared Lincoln’s belief in making enemy armies and resources, the target of military efforts Grant always submitted at least the broad outlines of his plans to the president for advanced approval Southern command arrangements centered on President Davis who failed ever to create an effective system In 1862, Davis named Gen. Robert E. Lee as his principal military adviser Many of the professional officers on both sides were graduates of West Point and Annapolis, and thus had been trained in similar ways Most successful officers were those who were able to see beyond their academic training and envision a new kind of warfare in which destruction of resources was as important as battlefield tactics B. The Role of Sea Power Union had an overwhelming advantage in naval power, and it gave its navy two important roles One was enforcing a blockade of the Southern coast and the other was assisting the Union armies in field operations The Confederates made bold attempts to break the blockade with an ironclad warship On March 8, 1862, the Merrimac destroyed two of the ships and scattered the rest The Monitor put an end to the Virginia’s raids and preserved the blockade South never managed to overcome the Union’s naval advantages The Union navy transported supplies and troops and joined in attacking Confederate strong points South could defend only with fixed land fortifications, which proved no match C. Europe and the Disunited States At the beginning of the war England and France were generally sympathetic to the Confederacy, for several reasons Eager to weaken the U.S., an increasingly powerful commercial rival Some admired aristocratic social order of the South After Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, these groups worked particularly avidly for the Union Southern leaders argued that access to Southern cotton was vital to the English and French textile industries, but “King Cotton diplomacy” was a failure
In the end, no European nation offered diplomatic recognition to the Confederacy or intervened in the war The South never came close enough to victory to convince its potential allies to support it A serious crisis, the so-called Trent Affair, began in late 1861 - Confederate diplomats, James M. Mason and John Slidell, had slipped through the then ineffective Union blockade to Havana, Cuba, where they borded an English steamer, the Trent, for England Wilkes stopped the British vessel, arrested the diplomats, and carried them into triumph to Boston Lincoln and Seward spun out the negotiations until American public opinion had cooled off, them released the diplomats with an indirect apology D. The American West and the War Except for Texas the western states and territories remained officially loyal to the Union There was vicious fighting in Kansas and Missouri

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