9 laboratory evidence indicates that bacteria that

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9) Laboratory evidence indicates that bacteria that express genes that make them resistant to antibiotics have lower fitness when the antibiotic is not present in the environment. Based on this fact, you would expect the rate of occurrence of antibiotics-resistant bacteria to be lowest in countries where: (A) antibiotics are unregulated and available without a prescription, (B) antibiotics are never used, (C) antibiotics are only available with a prescription, (D) antibiotics are routinely given to livestock to make them grow faster, (E) antibiotics are used by a large portion of the population to help prevent heart disease. 10) Influenza pandemics can start anywhere in the world, but some locations are more likely than others to start a new pandemic. Based on your understanding of how new pandemics arise, where would you expect them to originate most frequently (assume that the same number of people live in all locations): (A) In industrialized countries where most people live in cities, (B) in agrarian countries where most people live on farms, (C) in countries where most people get little exercise (D) in countries where most people eat low-fat diets, (E) both (C) and (D) are correct. 11) In general, natural selection operates on: a) the genotype directly d) the genotype indirectly through the phenotype b) the phenotype directly e) both answers b & d are correct. c) the phenotype indirectly through the genotype 12) Consider the above data for an annual, asexual plant species consisting of 5 genotypes (A, B, C, D, & E), similar to the data set discussed in class: For genotype “C” which statement is correct: 13) For the asexual plant example described in the above question, which genotype would be the best gene- transport machine if mortality became the overriding factor determining fitness ?
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14) Consider an asexual, annual animal species. Two genotypes that affect survival are present in the gene pool. The first genotype ( genotype-nice-guy ) is good for the species as a whole because it produces altruistic behavior (i.e., behavior that aids others at the expense of one’s own survival or fecundity). These individuals selflessly attack predators to defend their companions. The second genotype ( genotype-selfish-guy ) causes selfish behavior (i.e., cheaters who benefit from defense against the predator by others but these individuals do not help in the group’s defense). Individuals expressing genotype-nice-guy have a survival rate of 50% and those expressing genotype-selfish-guy have a survival rate of 75%. Fecundity among all surviving genotypes is identical. The genotype that would eventually predominate in the gene pool is:
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