St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (23 Aug 1572): Context: mass killing of (largely middle-class/noble) Huguenots in France in 1572 by Catholic forces under Catherine de Medici Significance: demonstrated the deep divide in Christianity after the Reformation, contributed to the exodus of thousands of Huguenots from France to other countries; prompted the War of the Three Henry’s Edict of Nantes (13 Apr 1598): Context: issued by Henry IV in 1598 following considerable political and religious conflict in France Significance: established tolerance towards Protestants, ending a long period of conflict in France; example of the triumph of “politique” (putting politics and power over other issues) “Spanish Armada” (July 1588): Context: Catholic Philip II of Spain attempted to invade Protestant England with an armada of ships that was strong, but not strong enough to take on the British navy -> crushing Spanish defeat Significance: conflict brought about by religious divide; religious fervor so strong it overcame reason (Philip II had a vision from God that commanded him to lead the attack); failure of the attack contributed to the beginning of Spain’s political decline The Seventeenth-Century Crisis; The English Revolution, 1642-1660 Cold War: Roughly dated from 1947-1990, between the USSR & Soviet countries and the US & other Western Powers of Europe. Mostly known as the period where propaganda, and threats led to political hostilities between opposing sides. Rivaling in economic, political, military, and ideological ideas. Often characterized by the West’s fear of communism spreading. Nato and the Marshall Plan are examples of precautions taken by the West against Soviets. Berlin Blockade (June 1948 May 1949): One of the first major international crises of the Cold War. (during period when several nations were occupying post WWII Germany) The Soviet Union blocked the US and Western Allies from accesses Berlin. The Allies organized the Berlin airlift which was to carry supplies to the people of Western Berlin. Over 8,893 tons of necessities were airlifted every day (food fuel etc.) for a year. By spring 1949 USSR lifted a blockade of West Berlin which showed the tensions and competition between the two sides.