Energy_Storage_Technologies.pdf

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is marked with “-” either the quantity was not found in the corresponding report or the way it was presented was inconsistent with the format used here. For example, the EPRI-DOE report gives total cost in $/kW or $/kWh, not a formulation that takes into account both, simultaneously. Source: Schoenung EPRI Gonzalez Schoenung Chen 2003 [5] 2003 [2] 2004 [3] 2008 [6] 2009 [7] Techno. Params. Roundtrip Efficiency [%] 65 60-65 57-71 - 60-75 Self-discharge [%Energy per day] - - - - small Cycle Lifetime [cycles] - n/a 2000 - - Expected Lifetime [Years] 10 15 - - 10-15 Specific Energy [Wh/kg] - - - - 10-50* Specific Power [W/kg] - - - - - Energy Density [Wh/L] - - - - 16-60* Power Density [W/L] - - - - - Costs Power Cost [$/kW] 330 - 1400 - 700-2500 Energy Cost [$/kWh] 120 - 200-220 - 150-1000 PCS Cost [$/kW] 120-600 120-200 270-580 - - BOP Cost [$/kW] 60 120 - - - O&M Fixed Cost [$/kW-y] 18 65-96 - - - * indicates that since there were no values given for this technology, it was assumed that the range was similar to ZnBr and/or VRB so a union of their ranges was used to determine the values shown. 28
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Energy Storage Technologies Vandium Redox Batteries (VRB) 3.13 Vandium Redox Batteries (VRB) The Vanadium Redox Battery is a type of flow battery system in which the electrolytes are stored separately from the electrodes and are pumped through sets of electrochemical cells (known as the stack) which contain the electrodes to bring about the necessary chemical reactions. As with other flow battery systems the power and energy capacity are independent and controlled by the number of electrochemical cells and volume of available electrolyte, respectively. These systems have a long lifetime and typically only individual components need to be replaced, such as the stacks, while the electrolyte can be used indefinitely. How it Works For the background on the operation of flow batteries, see Section 2.1. This concept is unique in that all of the chemical reactions are based on the transfer of electrons between different vanadium ions. “At the negative electrode V 3+ is converted to V 2+ , during battery charging by accepting an electron. During discharge the V 2+ ions are reconverted back to V 3+ and the electron is released. At the positive terminal a similar reaction takes place between ionic forms of V 5+ and V 6+ . The electrolyte is made up of a vanadium and sulfuric acid mixture and is stored in external tanks and pumped as needed to the cells. The cells are divided into two half-cells by a proton exchange membrane (PEM), and separates the two different vanadium-based electrolyte solutions (the anolyte and the catholyte), and allows for the flow of ionic charge (protons or H+ ions) to complete the electric circuit” [2]. System Design Considerations Like other flow batteries the power and energy capacity are controlled separately by the number of electrochemical cells and the size of the electrolyte tanks, respectively. The design will also have to take into the fact that the efficiency of the system will be reduced due to the parasitic loss caused by the circulation of the electrolyte that requires the use of pumps.
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