nutrition study guide - answers-3.odt

Creatine supplement use common among athletes

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creatine supplement use common among athletes, bodybuilders, wrestlers, sprinters and anyone that wants to build muscle mass reports of kidney damage can affect hydration status and heat tolerance and lead to muscle cramping and diarrhea 8. Protein and Amino Acid supplements improved muscle growth increased endurance greater fat burn reduced fatigue improved recovery and reduced muscle soreness 3. Energy Metabolism 1. ATP and ADP ATP is the body’s energy currency; provides energy for all cell activities Bonds broken to release useable form of energy is called adenosine triphosphate ATP is produced in the body by energy systems provide overlapping coverage to replenish ATP over the short, medium, and long terms ATP is produced in the body by 3 separate energy systems (2 anaerobic and aerobic) and occurs in the mitochondria ADP When the third phosphate is removed from ATP, you get ADP , which stands for Adenosine Di Phosphate. With just 2 phosphates left, the molecule has much less chemical energy , because the high energy bond between the last 2 phosphates has been broken. 2. Chemical reactions (Catabolism and Anabolism) 1. Catabolism i s all of the chemical reactions that break down molecules, either to extract energy or to produce simple molecules for constructing others. 2. Anabolism refers to all of the metabolic reactions that build or assemble more complex molecules from simpler ones helpers in metabolic reactions enzymes facilitators of metabolic reactions (proteins) coenzymes organic compounds associate with enzymes without coenzyme, enzyme cannot function B vitamins serve coenzymes for energy metabolism 3. Low Carbohydrate diets Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption, often for the treatment of obesity or diabetes . Foods high in easily digestible carbohydrates (e.g., sugar , bread , pasta ) are limited or replaced with foods containing a higher percentage of fats and moderate protein (e.g., meat , poultry , fish , sh e llfish , eggs , cheese , nuts , and seeds ) and other foods low in carbohydrates (e.g., most salad vegetables such as spinach , kale , chard and collards ), although other vegetables and fruits (especially berries ) are often allowed
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used to treat some chronic diseases and conditions including CVD, metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure, and diabetes 4. Glycolysis (basic) the breakdown of glucose that provides a quick energy source use glucose from the glycogen stored in our muscles glucose in the blood or muscle glycogen = ATP every glucose molecule that goes through glycolysis will produce 2 atp molecules end product is pyruvate (pyruvic acid) converted to lactate (lactic acid) 5. Lactic Acid a by-product of glycolysis contributes to fatigue (but not the only factor) may be a factor in muscle soreness along with muscle damage during exercise number of mitochondria play a role in the buildup of lactic acid
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  • Summer '14
  • Energy, Vitamin, fat soluble vitamins

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