-Many people who are pro-gay activists think that if a person does not think gay people are born that way, but rather choose this, are homophobic and have “homo negative energy.” The “born this way” enthusiasts are committed to this because practices such as conversion therapy rely on the idea that this designation creates some sort of abnormality or mental disorder. The research does not agree with this, however. For example, Simon LeVay found through his research looking at adult brains that scientists don’t know if thedifferences between a heterosexual’s and a homosexual’s brains were there at birth or if they appeared later in life. The rise in support for gay marriage and other gay rights is
that more Americans are in contact with someone who is gay and can have compassion and sympathy for their rights.2. What is problematic about studies that analyze the brain?-Studies that analyze the brain can often largely focus on genetics, which doesn’t tell the whole story. There is also no ability to tell if things developed in the brain at birth or overtime as an individual had more gay experiences. 3. In addition to critiquing studies that seek out evidence that homosexuality is biological, Ambrosino also discusses how sexuality is socially constructed – what does this mean, and give examples from the reading’s discussion of research-Ambrosino describes sexuality as social constructed because our “desires may express themselves in many different ways that do not all conform to existing notions of “gay,” “straight” or “bisexual.” For example, the study on sex between straight white men showsthat individuals who do not claim to be gay still can participate in homosexual activity. There are studies that show that desires are constantly re-oriented as we experience more.4. Explain three reasons Ambrosino gives for needing a more nuanced argument than “born this way”-Three reasons Ambrosino gives for needing a more nuanced argument than “born this way” are first that it is just not the truth and the evidence offers no consensus that it couldbe. Second, the search for a gay gene makes it seem as though homosexuality is not the natural state of a human. This creates inert homophobia and could be completely detrimental. Third, Ambrosino states that the “born this way” view creates a negative perception of gay people onto themselves. It portrays being gay in a way that he described as a “handicap,” as if anyone who was gay didn’t actually want to be gay.