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create a structure to facilitate international agreements, of bringing the nations of the world into a parliament of man.War Debts and Reparations.- European relations during the 1920’s were seriously affected by efforts to collect the money loaned to Allied governments during and immediately after World War I. Many Americans believed that the United States should cancel the war debts, because the Allies had used most of the money to buy war materiel from American firms, because America became part of the Allied war effort. In 1921 passed the Dawes plan which substantially reduced the German obligation and advanced a loan to Germany. In 1929, a commission arranged new terms for the revisions of German reparations, called the Young Plan,it reduced the German obligations to $8 billion, payable over a period of almost sixty years. In 1931, President Herbert Hoover proposed a one-year postponement on all war debts and reparations. The Washington Conference.- Representatives from Great Britain, France, Italy, Japan, China, Belgium and the Netherlands met in Washington D.C. in late 1921 and early 1922 to discuss a reduction of naval armaments and issues relating to the Pacific. The conference succeeded in halting the construction of battleships and aircraft carriers, which was more than any other disarmament talks have been able to do. For the first time in history, major powers had consented to disarm. The Kellogg-Briand pact was devised in 1928, and it declared that the subscribers renounced war as an instrument of national policy and agreed to settle all disputes among themselves by peaceful means. With no means of enforcement, the pact proved ineffective.The Red Scare.- The success of the 1917 communist revolution in Russia convinced many Americans that the communist (called “Reds”) and their sympathizer were using the postwar turmoil to secure political power elsewhere in the world, including the United States. Law-enforcement agencies, both federal and state, were put on their guard against radical uprisings In the fall of 1919, Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer authorized raids on both acknowledged and alleged communists, resulting in the arrest of more than 4,000 persons, many of whom were apprehended and held in violation of their constitutional rights. At the end of 1919, almost 250 aliens whose views were regarded as dangerously radical were deported to the Soviet Union. In the spring of 1920, the raids were ended, but that fall a bomb exploded on Wall Street, killing 38 people, sending a wave of fear across the nation, and contributing greatly to the antiradical fervor. An example of the Red Scare was the Sacco-Vanzetti case. In May 1920,Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were arrested for a shoe-company robbery and the murder of a paymaster and his guard in Massachusetts. Both of them were anarchists (that believe in the complete absence of government). Despite inconclusive evidence both men weresentenced to death after a trial where it was believed that they were convicted because of their anarchist beliefs rather than the evidence presented.