Active immunization is the vaccine subjecting you to antigens so you learn and

Active immunization is the vaccine subjecting you to

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Active immunization is the vaccine – subjecting you to antigens so you learn and form memory. Ab’s are tough proteins, last for a few months, but then fade away. No more plasma cells either. What you have and want with a vaccine is the B cell memory. Infants most vulnerable in 3-9 month period, when Ig levels (acquired passively) have diminished. 3 broad categories of vaccines:
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1.live/active – viruses technically NOT alive (we used the word active for a virus); more for viruses, we don’t really use for bacteria; use mutant strains of virus (live attenuated vaccine), not full blown dangerous virus. MOST RISKY, most side effects, but you learn the most and have powerful response: Do not give this to immunocompromised patients; this is assuming healthy patients. IE – fixing the race so you win if you ever have to run race. 2.killed/inactive – (you can inactivate virus with heat); cannot harm you, you learn from remains. 3.recombinant vaccine – produce a few molecules/critical antigens and inject; SAFEST, but less robust immune response, may need multiple injections Types of Vaccines 1. Live attenuated vaccines: use weakened form of a live bacteria or infectious virus 2. (a) Inactivated (killed) vaccines; (b) subunit (recombinant) vaccines; (c) conjugated vaccines Clinical Use of Passive Immunization Only available against a few toxins, bacteria, and viruses Check Table13-1 (you are not asked to memorize the list) Prophylactic and therapeutic uses: Prevention following known exposure: e.g. accidental exposure to Hepatitis A contaminated blood or HIV Ameliorate symptoms of ongoing disease Protect immunodeficient individuals Block action of bacterial toxins or animal venoms Source of immunoglobulins (antibody): human blood of many donors, horse serum, monoclonal Ab’s from cell lines. Horse serum: common source of anti-venom and anti-toxin Ig, may cause allergic reaction (serum sickness). When travelling or during an outbreak to stem spread (PrEP); or after known exposure (PEP). This is when time is of the essence. Using animals to generate Ig’s can lead to serum sickness (address in ppt 4). Live Vaccines (Attenuated or Avirulent) Can still infect, but cause little (attenuated) to no (avirulent) disease Better immune response Can mimic normal route of infection (e.g. spray for attenuated flu vaccine, pill for attenuated polio (Sabin) vaccine) More inflammation (helps build antigen-specific response) Problems Dangerous to immunosuppressed patients and pregnant women May mutate back to virulent form (very unlikely for genetically engineered organisms) Hard to balance avirulence and ability to propagate Best immune response.
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Can inoculate with vaccine the same route of normal infection. *First vaccine ever developed in 1700’s (we didn’t know this at the time): cowpox leads to smallpox. *Being exposed to cowpox protects against smallpox.* *BCG is harmless bacteria that can produce immunity against TB b/c it’s very similar; but you will always test + for TB.
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  • Fall '17
  • Dr. Schoffstall
  • cells, T Cells

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