Active immunization is the vaccine subjecting you to antigens so you learn and

Active immunization is the vaccine subjecting you to

This preview shows page 26 - 29 out of 35 pages.

Active immunization is the vaccine – subjecting you to antigens so you learn and form memory. Ab’s are tough proteins, last for a few months, but then fade away. No more plasma cells either. What you have and want with a vaccine is the B cell memory. Infants most vulnerable in 3-9 month period, when Ig levels (acquired passively) have diminished. 3 broad categories of vaccines:
Image of page 26 – viruses technically NOT alive (we used the word active for a virus); more for viruses, we don’t really use for bacteria; use mutant strains of virus (live attenuated vaccine), not full blown dangerous virus. MOST RISKY, most side effects, but you learn the most and have powerful response: Do not give this to immunocompromised patients; this is assuming healthy patients. IE – fixing the race so you win if you ever have to run race. 2.killed/inactive – (you can inactivate virus with heat); cannot harm you, you learn from remains. 3.recombinant vaccine – produce a few molecules/critical antigens and inject; SAFEST, but less robust immune response, may need multiple injections Types of Vaccines 1. Live attenuated vaccines: use weakened form of a live bacteria or infectious virus 2. (a) Inactivated (killed) vaccines; (b) subunit (recombinant) vaccines; (c) conjugated vaccines Clinical Use of Passive Immunization Only available against a few toxins, bacteria, and viruses Check Table13-1 (you are not asked to memorize the list) Prophylactic and therapeutic uses: Prevention following known exposure: e.g. accidental exposure to Hepatitis A contaminated blood or HIV Ameliorate symptoms of ongoing disease Protect immunodeficient individuals Block action of bacterial toxins or animal venoms Source of immunoglobulins (antibody): human blood of many donors, horse serum, monoclonal Ab’s from cell lines. Horse serum: common source of anti-venom and anti-toxin Ig, may cause allergic reaction (serum sickness). When travelling or during an outbreak to stem spread (PrEP); or after known exposure (PEP). This is when time is of the essence. Using animals to generate Ig’s can lead to serum sickness (address in ppt 4). Live Vaccines (Attenuated or Avirulent) Can still infect, but cause little (attenuated) to no (avirulent) disease Better immune response Can mimic normal route of infection (e.g. spray for attenuated flu vaccine, pill for attenuated polio (Sabin) vaccine) More inflammation (helps build antigen-specific response) Problems Dangerous to immunosuppressed patients and pregnant women May mutate back to virulent form (very unlikely for genetically engineered organisms) Hard to balance avirulence and ability to propagate Best immune response.
Image of page 27
Can inoculate with vaccine the same route of normal infection. *First vaccine ever developed in 1700’s (we didn’t know this at the time): cowpox leads to smallpox. *Being exposed to cowpox protects against smallpox.* *BCG is harmless bacteria that can produce immunity against TB b/c it’s very similar; but you will always test + for TB.
Image of page 28
Image of page 29

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 35 pages?

  • Fall '17
  • Dr. Schoffstall
  • cells, T Cells

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes