It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being it is their

It is not the consciousness of men that determines

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“It is not the consciousness of men that determines their being, it is their social being that determines their consciousness.” – Marx and Engels a. where you are in society determines you views on society ° Marx: society & production o In any society there exists an economic organisation of the “forces and relations” of production a. By forces, things necessary for material production – technology, energy, and material resources Make factories, make medicines b. By relations, the means by which this production takes place c. EXAMPLE: in the case of capitalism, Marx divided the relations of production into profit-oriented capitalists , people who own factories and other productive enterprises, and the proletarians , people who provide labour necessary to operate factories and other productive enterprises. Marx argued that conflict between these two classes was inevitable in a system of capitalist production. o Hobby now, not related to it for survival o
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Cultural Criminology 30/04/2015 ° A theoretical and methodological approach to the study of crime that looks primary at the relationship between the emotions and experiences of those involved in criminal activity (foreground), and the material and symbolic realities of control and marginalization (background). o Proliferation of gangs ° ° Influences o Stuart Hall – Birmingham School o Reception Analysis a. Procter (2004) summarizes the theoretical assumptions of Hall’s work thus: ‘(i) meaning is not simply fixed or determined by the sender; (ii) the message is never transparent; and (iii) the audience is not a passive recipient of meaning.’ o Interactionist Theory a. “In examining the mediated networks and discursive connections noted above, cultural criminologists also trace the manifold interactions through which criminals, control agents, media producers, and others collectively construct the meaning of crime. In so doing, cultural criminologists attempt to elaborate on the "symbolic" in "symbolic interaction" by highlighting the popular prevalence of mediated crime imagery, the interpersonal negotiation of style within criminal and deviant subcultures, and the emergence of larger symbolic universes within which crime takes on political meaning” (Ferrell, 1999: 398). o Subcultural Theory a. “Members of the working-class encounter daily hardships and alienation from the ruling hegemony . . . Younger generations are reluctant to suffer what their parents go through without protest. These youngsters develop distinct styles and practices with manifest their separate identity, condition and subversion. They encounter young black of Caribbean origin which have a much more historically grounded and formed reason for protest and adopt some of their feature in order to form "white ethnicity'. The media discovers the subculture (and thus essentially baptizing it) with a reaction that is typically moral panic. The subculture expands while in the process losing its rebellious edge either by turning into another commercial consumer
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