settlers launched a counterattack which resulted in fall of the Powhatans = extinction. Virginia becomes royal colony after the company from the colony goes bankrupt.Plymouth Pilgrims and Massachusetts PuritansThe Mayflower Separatists – Went to John Smith for advice, told to go North, but went further North than what he suggested. Religious movement motivation to move to the New World (Puritans). They believed that the Church of England wasn’t changed enough. Wanted to purify the church, but the royalty was against it and they were being
persecuted. People from Scroobie = them = leave or be persecuted (1608). Decided not to go to America and went to Holland (more tolerant than England), but they weren’t allowed to join the unions since they were Protestant. Began to feel uncomfortable (English migrants’ children beginning to act Dutch = leave). They were also afraid of Spain attacking Holland = go to America. At first, had 2 ships (Mayflower and Goodspeed), but the Goodspeed sank and they doubled up in the Mayflower. They were intending to be close to Jamestown, but ended up on Plymouth Rock on Christmas Day. Decide to build temporary shelters where they stored their food to open up room in the ship, but these burned down = dependent on natives. Focused their lives on being with God. They’re then approached by an Indian who can speak English, Squanto. Squanto and the 1stThanksgiving – When he was 12-13, he was kidnapped by English fishermen and brought back to England. He was sold into slavery in Spain, but then served as a house boy by an English minister, tells him how homesick he is and is put onto a vessel back home. Introduced smallpox to the Indian population. When he returns, everyone is dead from smallpox (1619). The next year, the Puritans/Pilgrims arrive. He offers to intercede with the Wampanoag to have a truce with the Puritans. They then have Thanksgiving and the truce lasts several months. The puritans then stole the underground rations from the Indians = truce broken. The Puritans hired Capt. MilesStandish(not Puritan) to launch a strike against the Indians (cut off heads = Indians called them “cutthroats” in their language). The Mayflower Compact – one of the first forms of government, agreement to do things in unison/meetings. The settlement abides by it, but King James never recognized it (illegal document). Captain Miles Standish and the destruction of Merrymount – Thomas Mortonwanted to profit in the new world = built a trading est. He offered to trade English products with Indians (Merrymount). The Puritans (intolerant) asks Standish to destroy Merrymount and send Morton back to England. John Winthrop’s “City Upon a Hill” – 1630 = huge fleet appears, led by Winthrop with a royal charter (Also Puritans). Their settlements = Boston and Salem. Thought that this would be religiously puree community. He gave a sermon (“City Upon a Hill”) that equalsto America having a positive role in the world.