2135 structure of formal reports when writing formal

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21.3.5. STRUCTURE OF FORMAL REPORTS When writing formal reports, the choice of format as well the parts of the report must be carefully planned. Although the circumstances in which a report is written may determine its structure, the content of the report has to be organised in a logical way to help the readers understand the message clearly. Parts of the Report A formal report may include the following parts of elements: 1) Title page 2) Preface 3) Letter of transmittal 4) Acknowledgements 5) Table of content 6) List of illustration 7) Abstract /Executive summary 8) Introduction 9) Methodology 10) Discussion/Finding/Analysis 11) Conclusions 12) Recommendations 13) Appendices 14) Reference and bibliography. Each of these parts of formal report will now be discussed in details. Title Page A formal report usually begins with a title page. It contains the title of the report, the name of the person or organisation to whom the report is being submitted, the name of the report writer/s and the date. Preface The preface is an optional element in a formal report. It introduce the report by maintaining its salient features and scope. Letter of Transmittal The transmittal letter is a brief covering letter from the report writer explaining their causes for writing the report. It may contain the objectives, scope, and other highlights of the report. It may also contain acknowledgement if the report does not include an acknowledgement.
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259 Acknowledgements The acknowledgement section contains the name of the person who contributed to the production of the report and made the report possible it is just a ‘thank you’. Table of content The table of content ‘provides the reader and overall view of the report and shows it organisation. This section lists the main headings and the subheadings in the reports with page numbers. List of illustration The list of illustration’ gives systemat ic information about tables, graphs, figure, and chart used in the report. It is usually included if the number of does illustration or more than ten. Abstract /Executive summary An abstract are an executive summary, summaries the essential information in the report, focussing on key facts, finding, observation, results, conclusion, and recommendation. Introduction This section introduces the reader to the report and prepares them for discussion that follows by providing background information, defining its aims and objectives, and discussing the scope and limitation of the reports. It help the readers in understanding and analysing the report as it include facts that the reader must know in order to understand the discussion and the analysis that follow. Methodology While writing a report, information may have to be gathered from library and archival source or through internet surfing, interviews, surveys, and formal/informal discussion. The section on methodology summarises the methods of data collection, the procedures for investigating the situation / problem, and the criteria of survey.
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