jung's psychological types the 'four functional types'In addition to the two attitudes of extraversion and introversion, Jung also developed a framework of 'fourfunctional types'.Jung described these four 'Functional Types' as being those from which the "...most differentiated function playsthe principal role in an individual's adaptation or orientation to life..." (from Psychological Types, 1921) By 'mostdifferentiated' Jung meant 'superior' or dominant.Jung's Four Functions contain significant echoes of theand of the many related fourpartpatterns or sets ('quaternities') that relate to the Four Temperaments, dating back to ancient Greece andarguably earlier, although Jung's ideas are more a lot sophisticated and complex than the Four Temperamentsmodel.Four Temperamentsextravertedintrovertedpsychic energy is directed out of the person to theworld outside themthe person's psychic energy is internally directedobjective outwardsubjective inward"... maintains a positive relation to the object. Tosuch an extent does he affirm its importance thathis subjective attitude is continually beingorientated by, and related to the object...." (Jung)"....attitude to the object is an abstracting one....he is always facing the problem of how libido canbe withdrawn from the object...." (Jung)"an extravert attitude is motivated from the outsideand is directed by external, objective factors andrelationships" (Hyde)"an introvert is motivated from within and directedby inner, subjective matters" (Hyde)"behaviour directed externally, to influence outsidefactors and events" (Benziger)"behaviour directed inwardly to understand andmanage self and experience" (Benziger)
8/22/2016 personality styles, types, theories and psychometrics models, personality tests and quizzes theory 14/74 Like many theorists before him who had attempted to define personality Jung opted for a fourpart structure, which he used alongside his IntrovertedExtraverted attitudes: Jung's Four Functions of the psyche are: thinking and feeling which he said are the functions that enable us to decide and judge , (Jung called these ' Rational ') and sensation and intuition which Jung said are the functions that enable us to gather information and perceive (Jung called these ' Irrational '). Significantly Jung also asserted that each of us needs to be able to both perceive and to judge (gather information and decide) in order to survive and to carry on normal functioning behaviour. And he also said that in doing this each of us prefers or favours one of the functions from each of the pairings. Jung's Four Functions are described below. These very brief definitions and keywords are based respectively on descriptions by Hyde, Fordham and Benziger, all experts and writers on Jungian theory. The final column explains the pairings according to Jung's 'Rational' and 'Irrational' criteria, which nowadays correspond to the Myers Briggs® functions of 'Judging' and 'Perceiving' as featured in Myers Briggs'® theories. The colours are to
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