Processing desirable attributes can make viewers

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processing desirable attributes can make viewers better citizens is at the heart of both the economic (external benefits) and “cultural” arguments. (p. 130) This is precisely an example of the essential argument put forward in Europe to pub- licly “protect” the broadcast of certain events on free on-air television, such as soccer (Boardman & Heargreaves-Heap, 1999).
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186 RECA The cultural nature of media products, as well as their potential to be dealt with as public goods, have largely legitimated state intervention in the sector, either through ownershiporconcreteregulationsthataffectthesemarkets.Theprovisionofmediaprod- ucts from either the market or the state obviously has a decisive bearing on how they are operated. Tjernstr¨om (2002) contends that traditional literature on media management, based on the audience–advertiser duality, has not earnestly taken into account the whole spectrum of features found in products supplied by state-controlled organizations. The duality of those organizations is mainly comprised of the consumers (TV viewers, radio listeners, etc.) and politicians (who set the rules). In the light of these reflections, it stands to reason that most media products are endowed with a multiple nature, more than just a dual one, owing to the vast range of uses they are able to offer to different clients (or key stakeholders). Media Products as Talent Goods Onconsideringthefeaturesthatmediaproductsembody,itispossibletodrawasignificant conclusion: Media products depend on people’s talent to a large extent so it would be fair to consider media products as talent products. In fact, the media sector embodies the principle that states that the most important asset of a business is its people. According to Wolf (1999), “the entertainment economy will place enormous demands on a finite humane resource: creativity . . . . In the high-tech entertainment economy, the old-fashioned, low-tech motivator of change and innovation still reigns supreme: The mostvaluedcommodityisthehumanimagination(pp.293,296).”Imagination,creativity and, talent are the ingredients that make content products so successful for several reasons—in some cases, the “stars” are capable of drawing massive attention, whereas in others a particular team of professionals has the drive to come up with genuinely valuable content at a given moment or on a continuous basis. Those activities that constitute the creative industries sector depend heavily on talent. Activities that are specific to these industries have been defined by CITF Creative Indus- tries Task Force (CITF) in the United Kingdom as “those (activities) which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent, and which have the potential for wealth and job creation through generation and exploitation of intellectual property” (CITF, 2001). In spite of the similarities between the concept of creative industry and that of cultural industry, the use of the former in this section denotes just how critical individual (or group) creativity is in media product management. Evidently, not all media products
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