o Proximity brings us together but what s the first thing you notice SIMILARITY

O proximity brings us together but what s the first

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o Proximity brings us together but what ‘s the first thing you notice? · SIMILARITY o We tend to be attracted to others who have similarities to ourselves o Main types of similarity: § Species § Demographics: age, ethnicity, culture, religion, race, education, IQ § Personality § Values & Attitudes · Newcomb’s (1956) study on the “Experimental Dorm” - college dorm roommates suggested that individuals with shared backgrounds, academic achievements, attitudes, values, and political views typically became friends. · Measured attitudes prior to arriving (sex, family, politics) · Greater liking with similar attitudes o Similarity: WHY? § Reassuring, validating § Convergence of goals, desires, needs § Ease of interaction § Familiarity = comfort, security § Approval from others (family) transitive property § Anticipate greater acceptance · Similarity [Expected Liking] Attraction -- Attraction increases as similarity
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increases · Thought that that person was more likely to like them § Reciprocity—Study: 60 pairs of students, 5 minute conversation, manipulated A’s beliefs, 10 minute conversations, measure liking for each other § Reciprocity—Limits: what about flattery? Ingratiation? o Why is Reciprocity so attractive? § The need to belong (Braumeister & Leary, 1995) § The pain of rejection (Bernstein study) o Reciprocity: Avoid Rejection: § Would you ask someone out if you knew they’d say no? § No one wants to risk rejection § Desirability= physical attraction + probability of acceptance Do opposites attract? o Typically just trading assets—not so much a part of the big attraction o Opposite characteristics do stand out o We may find ‘opposite’ attractive, but we recognize the importance of similarity o Complimentary qualities (just good to be aware) · Physical attraction Thursday, Feb 2 2012 Physical attraction WE ARE ATTRACTED TO THOSE WHOSE PRESENCE IS REWARDING TO US How can physical attraction be rewarding? Certain universal traits Clear skin Golden ratio Are babies born with preference? -- NO. not innate What they like is determined by what they look at longest Measure eye gaze NOT INNATE Born with a mechanism Infants taking info in AVERAGE FACES SCHEMA FOR FACE Prefer avg. face because that is what they do on a regular basis COGNITIVE AVERAGING Avg. faces are easier to process Barriers: Where we are told we can’t have something we want more
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CALLED THE ROMEO & JULIET EFFECT Allure & Attractive Initial attractive v. Commitment CLOSING TIME EFFECT Research done in bars At the beginning of the night People will rate others as low At the end of night People will re-rate those that were lower as HIGHER WE ARE ATTRACTED TO THOSE WHOSE PRESENCE IS REWARDING TO US Rewards Direct Materials liking Indirect arousal Similarity Comfort Freewill Scents → Related to genetic fitness Waist to hip ratio: Fertility Shoulder to hip ratio: Status *PROXIMITY
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