o Proximity brings us together but what ‘s the first thing you notice? · SIMILARITY o We tend to be attracted to others who have similarities to ourselves o Main types of similarity: § Species § Demographics: age, ethnicity, culture, religion, race, education, IQ § Personality § Values & Attitudes · Newcomb’s (1956) study on the “Experimental Dorm” - college dorm roommates suggested that individuals with shared backgrounds, academic achievements, attitudes, values, and political views typically became friends. · Measured attitudes prior to arriving (sex, family, politics) · Greater liking with similar attitudes o Similarity: WHY? § Reassuring, validating § Convergence of goals, desires, needs § Ease of interaction § Familiarity = comfort, security § Approval from others (family) transitive property § Anticipate greater acceptance · Similarity [Expected Liking] Attraction -- Attraction increases as similarity
increases · Thought that that person was more likely to like them § Reciprocity—Study: 60 pairs of students, 5 minute conversation, manipulated A’s beliefs, 10 minute conversations, measure liking for each other § Reciprocity—Limits: what about flattery? Ingratiation? o Why is Reciprocity so attractive? § The need to belong (Braumeister & Leary, 1995) § The pain of rejection (Bernstein study) o Reciprocity: Avoid Rejection: § Would you ask someone out if you knew they’d say no? § No one wants to risk rejection § Desirability= physical attraction + probability of acceptance Do opposites attract? o Typically just trading assets—not so much a part of the big attraction o Opposite characteristics do stand out o We may find ‘opposite’ attractive, but we recognize the importance of similarity o Complimentary qualities (just good to be aware) · Physical attraction Thursday, Feb 2 2012 ● Physical attraction ○ WE ARE ATTRACTED TO THOSE WHOSE PRESENCE IS REWARDING TO US ■ How can physical attraction be rewarding? ● Certain universal traits ○ Clear skin ○ Golden ratio ● Are babies born with preference? -- NO. not innate ○ What they like is determined by what they look at longest ■ Measure eye gaze ■ NOT INNATE ○ Born with a mechanism ■ Infants taking info in ■ AVERAGE FACES ○ SCHEMA FOR FACE ■ Prefer avg. face because that is what they do on a regular basis ○ COGNITIVE AVERAGING ■ Avg. faces are easier to process ■ Barriers: Where we are told we can’t have something we want more
● CALLED THE ROMEO & JULIET EFFECT ○ Allure & Attractive ■ Initial attractive v. Commitment ● CLOSING TIME EFFECT ○ Research done in bars ■ At the beginning of the night ● People will rate others as low ■ At the end of night ● People will re-rate those that were lower as HIGHER ○ WE ARE ATTRACTED TO THOSE WHOSE PRESENCE IS REWARDING TO US ■ Rewards ● Direct Materials liking ● Indirect arousal ● Similarity ● Comfort ● Freewill ● Scents → Related to genetic fitness ● Waist to hip ratio: Fertility ● Shoulder to hip ratio: Status *PROXIMITY
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