This is a huge power struggle between the National Front and the Shah at the time. For a time Mossadeq is successful and convinces the masses to give more power from the military and create a more constitutional monarchy. The American government began toinvolve itself. Eisenhower takes power in American, his rhetoric much more emphasized on the communist threat. This front starts to see the National Front disintegrate.o1953 – CIA coup (‘Operation Ajax’): Mossadeq toppled and Shah’s position consolidated. CIA decides that the Mossadeq movement should be halted. With a clique of mutinous Iranian officers and CIA operatives, the coup fails at first and the Shah leaves to Rome, but the second attempt sees Mossadeq captured and the Shah returns to Iranian leadership and reinstalled as monarch. Mossadeq is sentenced to house arrest and will stay there until his death in 1967. The parliament is controlled and political freedom is limited and American influence increased. Internal security police will be setup with the assistance of the American govt. as well as the Israelis to clamp down on opposition.2
This shows a change over of western influence from the British to American government. It came at a price. The British government gave Americans a cut in Iranian oil interests. A new oil concession signed by the Shah gave Iran a little more than the 1930’s concession. The reward forthe Shah is consolidation of his position, the military would receive very light American military aid. The Shah enjoyed the trappings of power and pageantry. He stressed the continuity of his family with the ancient Persian kings and compared himself to Cyrus the Great. He seeks to attach himself to this ancient tradition and holds expensive celebration of Persian monarchy.