◆Bangles ●Circular, having no beginning and no end. ●Symbolized chastity, the couple is supposed to stay together through multiple lives. Visual Markers of Widowhood ➢Shaved head ➢White clothing ➢Bangles ○When women become widows, every aspect of auspiciousness is removed from appearance. Powder is removed from hair, bangles are broken, etc. ➢They are considered pretty inauspicious, and can cause problems. Especially if they are young. ➢Expectations include a life of chasteness, not allowed to remarry, and they are barred from ritual society. ➢In contemporary India, many people follow widow reform practices and do not follow such strict rules. Widow Reform Practices -Pandita Ramabai made these reforms. She was educated in Sanskrit, married at 22, and after 2 years of marriage she was widowed. -After her husband died, she was interested in women's activism. -She critiqued institutions of marriage and widowhood. She converted to Christianity and opened the first ever residential school for Hindu widows. -Many women were not given skills or protection in the case that their husband dies. This is still an issue, but has been changed significantly over the years. -Although legally widows are ot supposed to be treated differently, they are culturally and this makes their lives quite difficult. -Traditional ideas create a difficult space for Hindu women. April 7, 2020 The Decolonised Body ●Religions and spiritualities now and how they have worked against colonisation and strive for individuality. ●To decolonise means to exposed and overcome ongoing colonial dynamics that continue to shape how people live and come to know themselves. Indigenous Resurgence ➢Pan-Indigeneity: representing indigenous communities as one homogenous, universal group.