Carbs Proteins Nucleic acids Have underlying structures that are polymers How

Carbs proteins nucleic acids have underlying

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Carbs Proteins Nucleic acids Have underlying structures that are polymers How are large molecules formed? Small organic What is the relationship between structure and function for macromolecules?
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Structure and function go hand in hand What is a polymer? How do they form? Polymer- long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks which together create a macromolecule Formed by many monomers combining via hydrogen bonds How are monomers connected during polymer formation? What is this process called? the H bonds to the hydroxyl group of another atom and releases water The process is called dehydration synthesis How are polymers disassembled? Thru hydrolysis - adding water to break bonds Why is there a great diversity of macromolecules within and across lifeforms? Each of the macromolecules have different functions required for life What is a carbohydrate? What do they include? Include sugars and polymers of sugars Most common monomer - glucose Describe their basic molecular structure. Linear, ring, can be branched How are monosaccharides classified? Defined- Simplest sugars Location of carbonyl group # of carbons in skeleton What is an aldose? A ketose? If carbonyl group located at terminal end - aldose If carbonyl group located anywhere in between - ketose What form do many sugars take in aqueous solutions? Rings Describe the formation of a disaccharide from monosaccharides. Monosaccharides combine via dehydration synthesis to form disaccharides Glucose + glucose = maltose What is a polysaccharide? What roles do they perform? Polysaccharides - chain of many monomers Perform structure and storage roles What determines the structure and function of a polysaccharide? Determined by its sugar monomers and position of glycosidic linkages How do animals and plants store polysaccharides? Animals store starch in adipose cells, liver and muscle cells Plants store starch Organisms (e.g., animals) that can hydrolyze starch cannot hydrolyze cellulose. What are the consequences of this if an animal consumes material with cellulose? Cellulose passed through as insoluble fibers in animals since it cannot be digested What is chitin?
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Structural polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of arthropods & fungi Are lipids polymers? Why or why not? Lipids are not polymers Because they don’t have monomers Why are lipids hydrophobic? Mostly contain hydrocarbons How are fats assembled? Dehydration synthesis What is an ester linkage? Bonds formed between fats Why are saturated fats solid at room temperature and unsaturated fats liquid at room Temperature? Saturated fats have an orderly bond and the molecules are tightly packed, Unsaturated Fats are less lightly packed and have bends and kinks (prevent tight packing) in their molecules so they appear More fluid What is hydrogenation (e.g., hydrogenating vegetable oil)? Addition of oxygen Why is fat storage adaptive? Can hold more energy for long term Carbs are short term What are the similarities and differences between fats and phospholipids? differences : fats have 3 fatty acid chains Phospholipid have 2 chains - Due to polarity phospholipids have a phosphate group - Fats are all positive similarities : glycerol + fatty acid chains What occurs when phospholipids are added to water?
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  • Spring '08
  • Dr.Vomachka
  • Atom, Chemical bond

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