1 compartmentation provides a mechanism for creating

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1. Compartmentation provides a mechanism for creating and maintaining important disequilibriums.” (Fig. 1.6) 5. Control Systems and Homeostasis 1. Regulated versus controlled variables 1. Regulated variables remain relatively constant (resist change) 2. Controlled variables are changed dramatically with the outcome of regulating other variables. 2. Setpoint (Blood pressure? Temperature? Osmolarity? pH? etc.) 3. A flow diagram of a simple control system (Fig. 1.7) 4. Local Control is restricted to a tissue 1. Example: blood vessel dilation and constriction caused by changes in local concentrations of paracrines and metabolites. 5. Reflex control: widespread (systemic) changes. Usually referred to as “reflex” control. 1. Example: changes in blood pressure 2. Components of a reflex 1. Stimulus sensor input signal  output signal target response 2. Classic example of a mechanical control system: temperature regulation in a fish tank (Fig. 1.9) 3. Feedback loops 3. Negative feedback (Fig. 1.10) 4. Positive feedback (Fig. 1.11 and 1.12) 5. Feedforward 1. Salivation upon the presentation of food 2. Increased heart rate before a test, a race, a date? 6. Biological rhythms 1. Change predictably with changes in light/dark cycles, seasonal variation etc. 2. Changes in set point? (Fig. 1.13) 3. Adaptations to changing environments that are called acclimatization when they occur naturally and acclimation when they occur due to changes in controlled environments (i.e., in the laboratory). 1. Temperature 2. Altitude 3. Gravity
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6. The Science of Physiology 1. Designing good experiments requires 1. A testable hypothesis 2. Independent and dependent variables 3. Data collection and replications 4. Difference between theories and models 2. Difficulties of interpreting results from human studies 1. Genetic and environmental variability 1. Crossover studies 2. Placebo effect and nocebo effect 1. Blind and double-blind studies 3. Ethics of using humans as test subjects 3. Common types of studies using human subjects 1. Longitudinal studies vs. cross-sectional studies 2. Prospective vs. retrospective studies 3. Meta-analysis 4. Presenting your data (Fig. 1.14) 1. Standard features of a graph 2. Bar graphs 3. Histogram 4. Line graph 5. Scatter plot
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