1 From this source I use variable 33 Ju risdictional Hierarchy Beyond Local

1 from this source i use variable 33 ju risdictional

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1 From this source, I use variable 33, “Ju- risdictional Hierarchy Beyond Local Community” to measure state centralization. This gives a discrete categorization between “No Levels” and “Four Levels.” This is the same 1 In particular, I use the revised Atlas posted online by J. Patrick Gray at .
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ECOLOGY, TRADE AND STATES IN PRE-COLONIAL AFRICA 5 F IGURE 1. State centralization Source: (Murdock, 1967). Darker regions have more centralized states. variable that was used by Michalopoulos and Papaioannou (2010), and originally con- verted by Gennaioli and Rainer (2007) into a discrete variable to capture the same con- cept. 2 The sample used for the analysis consists of the 440 sub-Saharan societies, in- cluding Madagascar, for which this variable is not missing. I map this measure of state centralization on Murdock’s (1959) ethnic map of Africa in Figure 1. 3 To measure the gains from trade, I follow Bates (1983) in assuming that the ability to trade across ecological zones will be particularly beneficial. To get information on ecology, I use White’s (1983) vegetation map of Africa. 4 This classifies African vegetation into 17 major types, which I plot in Figure 2. 5 2 In particular, they took a society as “centralized” if it had at least one level of jurisdiction above the local, and weighted this by each society’s share in the national population in 1960 to construct a country-level measure of pre-colonial state centralization in Africa. 3 This map is available on Nathan Nunn’s website. 4 This is available at . 5 Altimontaine, anthropic, azonal, bushland and thicket, bushland and thicket mosaic, cape shrubland, desert, edaphic grassland mosaic, forest, forest transition and mosaic, grassland, grassy shrubland, sec- ondary wooded grassland, semi-desert, traditional scrubland, woodland, woodland mosaics and transi- tions.
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6 JAMES FENSKE F IGURE 2. Vegetation types and ecological diversity Source: White (1983). In the left-hand map of vegetation types, each shade of grey represents a different one of each of the sixteen major types. In the right-hand side map of ecological diversity, darker regions are more ecologically diverse To construct a measure of how location relative to these regions could give rise to gains from trade, I calculate the share s t i of each society i ’s area that is occupied by each ecological type t . Then, I use a Herfindahl index to construct a measure of each society’s ecological diversity: (1) Ecological diversity i = 1 - t =17 X t =1 ( s t i ) 2 . The economic analogy for this measure is that, if ethnic groups were markets, vegeta- tion types were firms and these area shares were market shares, this would be an index of the competitiveness of the market. As more ecological zones intersect a society’s area, the natural ability to trade increases, and the index rises. I show a map of this variable in Figure 2. Visually comparing Figures 1 and 2, it is apparent that the most centralized
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