1 Note Multiple bonds ie double or triple bonds are considered one group or

1 note multiple bonds ie double or triple bonds are

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1.Note: Multiple bonds (i.e. double or triple bonds) are considered one group (or pair). iii.Step 3: With the number of groups (or electron pairs) designated, select the appropriate electron pair geometry. iv.Step 4: Remove lone electron pairs and assess new geometry. c.All possible molecular geometries, with examples, are provided in Table A below. 4)Molecular polarityis dependent upon the generation of dipole moments due to differences in electronegativity between bonding substituents and the geometry of the resultant molecule. a.Nonpolar molecules have no net dipole. b.Polar molecules have net nonzero dipole moments. c.Dipole moment information is provided in Table B below. d.Note: Charged molecules or ions are always polar due to the fact that they have a constant charge/pole. Experiment #12 Barnett
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109 Table A: Molecular Geometries Predicted by the VSEPR Model Total Groups on Central Atom BondedGroups to Central AtomNonbonding Electron Pairs on Central Atom VSEPR*Formula Approx. Bond Angles Electron Pair Geometry Molecular Geometry Examples 2 2 0 AX2180olinear linear BeF23 3 0 AX3120otrigonal planar trigonal planar BCl33 2 1 AX2E <120otrigonal planar angular, bent SnCl24 4 0 AX4109.5otetrahedral tetrahedral CH44 3 1 AX3E <109.5otetrahedral trigonal pyramidal PH34 2 2 AX2E2<109.5otetrahedral angular, bent H2O 5 5 0 AX590o/120otrigonal bipyramidal trigonal bipyramidal PI55 4 1 AX4E >90o/>120otrigonal bipyramidal irregular tetrahedral SCl45 3 2 AX3E2<90otrigonal bipyramidal T – shaped ClF35 2 3 AX2E3180otrigonal bipyramidal linear XeF26 6 0 AX690ooctahedral octahedral SF66 5 1 AX5E >90ooctahedral square pyramidal BrF56 4 2 AX4E290ooctahedral square planar ICl4A double or triple bond counts as a single group. *A = central atom, X = substituent/bonding group, E = lone electron pair Experiment #12 Barnett
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110 Table B:glyph1197et Dipoles of Predicted Molecular Geometries VSEPR*Formula Molecular Geometry glyph1197et DipoleAX Linear Can be nonzero AX2Linear Zero AX2Bent Can be nonzero AX3Trigonal planar Zero AX3Trigonal pyramidal Can be nonzero AX3T – shaped Can be nonzero AX4Tetrahedral Zero AX4Square planar Zero AX4Irregular tetrahedral Can be nonzero AX5Trigonal bipyramidal Zero AX5Square pyramidal Can be nonzero AX6Octahedral Zero *A = central atom, X = substituent, E = electron pair Assuming all atoms are identical Experimental Procedure: 1)Draw out the appropriate Lewis structure for all of the molecules or ions in the two charts below. 2)Using the molecular model kits provided in the lab, construct ball and stick models of these molecules or ions. a.Ensure that you include all groups around the central atom; that includes both bonding atoms and nonbonding electron pairs. 3)Following construction, determine the following information about each:
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  • Fall '09
  • vega
  • Chemistry, Mass, Chemical reaction, Timothy Barnett

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