Ancestry and Disease-simple-version.pptx

Per million individuals per year for end stage renal

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per million individuals per year) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to lupus nephritis in different sociodemographic groups based on renal registry in the USA on 12,344 patients.
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Controls Cases A particular Genetic variant GWAS-genome wide association studies
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Genetic susceptibility in Asians Genetic susceptibility in Europeans
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Genetic susceptibility in Asians Genetic susceptibility in Europeans
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Genetic risk score 欧洲人 东亚人 非洲人 南亚人 AMR Admixed American Europeans South Asians East Asian African
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nderstanding population genetic differences
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One version, called an allele, of the EPAS1 gene, changed in frequency from 9% in Han Chinese to 87% in Tibetans. This gene encodes a transcription factor involved in the induction of genes regulated by oxygen, which is induced as oxygen levels fall.
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WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? Such genetic changes suggest Tibetan ancestors split off from the Han Chinese population about 2,750 years ago. But only those most evolutionarily suited for life at high altitudes survived when they moved to the Tibetan Plateau. "It took only a few hundred generations to change the allele frequency, which can only happen if a lot of people have died," said Rasmus Nielsen, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California at Berkeley. "In that sense, it must have had a strong effect on fitness."
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Two forces determines our skin color….high UVR near the equator led to the evolution of dark, photoprotective, eumelanin - rich pigmentation (to protect folate, also from sunburn and melanoma). The other was produced by the requirement for UVB photons to sustain cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D 3 in low-UVB environments, and resulted in the evolution of depigmented skin.
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Lactase persistence is the continued activity of the lactase enzyme in adulthood. Since lactase's only function is the digestion of lactose in milk , in most mammal species, the activity of the enzyme is dramatically reduced after weaning . [1] In some human populations, though, lactase persistence has recently evolved [2] as an adaptation to the consumption of nonhuman milk and dairy products beyond infancy.
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Lactase persistence
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  • Spring '18
  • Mutation, Sickle-cell disease, Stevens-Johnson syndrome

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