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terms, the state pursued a classic carrot-and-stick policy, eulogizing women
who were models of self-abnegation, thrift, and productivity while arresting activists and banning their publicationthe role of the girls higher schools should be to develop in young women refined taste and gentle and modest character women of leisure, then should receive enough education-but no more than necessary-to fulfill thir duties within the home. The curriculum of the girls ‘ higher schools accordingly was not the academic equal of that provided to young men in middle schools, and it in no way prepared female students for entrance to higher schoolsbecame the guiding aphorism for government policy on women, and the phrase resonates in Japanese society still today.“Modern Girl” (moga)Moga as symbol of modern: embodied all the thing that were threatening about Japanese women in the modern eraWomen’s new place threatened patriarchal order & “good wife, wise mother” Woman was becoming more like man both spiritually and physicallyFirst and foremost, modern girl was defined by her body and most specifically by her short hair and long straight legsWas no longer secluded in the confines of the household, but was out in the open, working and playing alongside men. This was her real transgression: shewould not accept the division of labor that had placed her in the homeSelf-sufficiencyoModern girl had not simply abandoned motherhood. She was anti-motherhood. They are economic self-sufficiency.o“free living and free thinkingomake her own moneyouse male word “I”owas crafty, manipulative, and intellectualizing. Free to go out, even to sleep out, and maintained no boundariesogroup-oriented, productive, and possessed of a self-consciousness.There were two kind of Moga. First one is that woman is with time and moneyto fashion herself brightly colored ensemble of Western clothing with match hat. They were not “free”Taisho Democracy1880s, “freedom and popular Rights Movement”pro-democracy movementovivil rightoelected legislatureoreduced taxesorevision of unequal treaties with Europe and USJapanese Constitution (1889)oInstituted voting rights for men who paid property taxeso1905-1920s: social movements flourished ourban proletariat: socialism began to gain supporters in Japanofeminism, minority movements gained momentumosignificance to women: roots of Japanese feminism borne during FRPMoproto-feminist Fukuda Hideko supporter of FPRM
owomen (some) paid property taxes but no voting rightsweek 4