Existing levels of urbanization High vs Low b Levels of economic development

Existing levels of urbanization high vs low b levels

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a. Existing levels of urbanization (High vs. Low) b. Levels of economic development (More vs. Less) c. Differential demographic trends (Growth vs. Decline) I.e Urbanized countries have slow population growth and urban growth can only result from further urbanization (They are often already highly urbanized) The majority of very large cities are in the LDW And these large cities are growing quickly How many large cities are there? And how large are they? Number of large cities (by population size), according to Demographia # of Cities and their Populations >20 Million = 4 > 10 Million = 22 > 5 Million = 55 > 2 Million = 171 According to the UN, there are probably 7 cities > 20 Million Why the discrepancy? World’s largest city? Tokyo? Not universally accepted Other cities sometimes listed as the largest include: New York, Seoul, Shanghai, Delhi, Sao Paulo Why the Uncertainty? It is a matter of definition; how has the urban area been defined ( What are the boundaries) These Definition can be based on o Political/ Legal definition o Urban agglomeration o Sphere of influence Toronto for example: o City of Toronto (Political) - 2.6 million (640km2) o Toronto CMA (Agglomeration) - 5.1 million (5,500km2) o GTA (Sphere) - 5.6 million (7000km2) Tokyo o City (Political) - 8 Million o Metropolitan Region (Sphere) - 35-40 million Chongqing o Municipality (Political) - 29 million Many residents are rural farm workers Urbanized area (Agglomeration) - 6 million Megacity : City of 10 million or more Mostly in the LDW (see Table 11.5)
Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Dhaka, Karachi, Jakarta, Lagos, Cairo, Sao Paulo, Mexico City Growth of megacities: Related to urbanization more generally Economic Attraction Rapidly expanding population base 1. Rural - Urban Migration 2. Natural Increase Approx 6 of 40 megacities in 2030 will be in the MDW However, our list of ‘more developed’ and ‘less developed’ countries might look different in 2030 Urban Centres Urban centres are places which consume food & other goods and services Are places which process & produce goods and materials Places of production Are places that distribute goods and services In doing so, urban centres are functionally connected to other urban centres and to the surrounding non-urban areas Many of the connections between urban centres are related to their absolute and relative locations Efficiency of Location : Whether it is centrally (strategically) located or not Efficiency of location is associated with an urban centre’s site and or situation Site o Where is it? (Head of a river, cross-roads, etc.) Situation o Proximate to other urban centres, isolated, etc. o Difficult to distribute goods in an isolated location Centrality of Places Given: Situational locations of urban centres Interconnected functions of urban centres (ie. producers, consumers, and distributors of goods and service) Then: Urban centres do not function independently They are interconnected with other centres in a system Each urban centre contributes to the urban system by providing goods and services for other centres and

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