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a.Existing levels of urbanization (High vs. Low)b.Levels of economic development (More vs. Less)c.Differential demographic trends (Growth vs. Decline) I.e Urbanized countries have slow population growth and urban growth can only result from further urbanization (They are often already highly urbanized)The majority of very large cities are in the LDW And these large cities are growing quickly How many large cities are there? And how large are they?Number of large cities (by population size), according to Demographia# of Cities and their Populations>20 Million = 4> 10 Million = 22> 5 Million = 55> 2 Million = 171According to the UN, there are probably 7 cities > 20 MillionWhy the discrepancy? World’s largest city? Tokyo?Not universally acceptedOther cities sometimes listed as the largest include: New York, Seoul, Shanghai, Delhi, Sao PauloWhy the Uncertainty?It is a matter of definition; how has the urban area been defined ( What are the boundaries)These Definition can be based on oPolitical/ Legal definitionoUrban agglomeration oSphere of influence Toronto for example:oCity of Toronto (Political) - 2.6 million (640km2)oToronto CMA (Agglomeration) - 5.1 million (5,500km2)oGTA (Sphere) - 5.6 million (7000km2)TokyooCity (Political) - 8 MillionoMetropolitan Region (Sphere) - 35-40 million ChongqingoMunicipality (Political) - 29 millionMany residents are rural farm workersUrbanized area (Agglomeration) - 6 millionMegacity: City of 10 million or moreMostly in the LDW (see Table 11.5)
Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Dhaka, Karachi, Jakarta, Lagos, Cairo, Sao Paulo, Mexico CityGrowth of megacities: Related to urbanization more generallyEconomic AttractionRapidly expanding population base1.Rural - Urban Migration2.Natural Increase Approx 6 of 40 megacities in 2030 will be in the MDWHowever, our list of ‘more developed’ and ‘less developed’ countries might look different in 2030 Urban CentresUrban centres are places which consume food & other goods and servicesAre places which process & producegoods and materials Places of production Are places that distribute goods and servicesIn doing so, urban centres are functionally connected to other urban centres and to the surrounding non-urban areasMany of the connections between urban centres are related to their absolute and relative locationsEfficiency of Location: Whether it is centrally (strategically) located or notEfficiency of location is associated with an urban centre’s site and or situationSiteoWhere is it? (Head of a river, cross-roads, etc.) Situation oProximate to other urban centres, isolated, etc.oDifficult to distribute goods in an isolated locationCentrality of PlacesGiven:Situational locations of urban centresInterconnected functions of urban centres (ie. producers, consumers, and distributors of goods and service) Then:Urban centres do not function independently They are interconnected with other centres in a systemEach urban centre contributes to the urban systemby providing goods and services for other centres and