Other organs such as the kidneys the heart and the

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Other organs such as the kidneys, the heart and the placenta also play a role in the endocrine system. The Pineal Gland 10. What is the pineal gland? The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body or epiphysis, is located in the center of the head. It secretes the hormone melatonin, a hormone produced at night and related to the regulation of circadian rhythm (or the circadian cycle, the
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wakefulness-sleep cycle). Melatonin may also regulate many body functions related to the night-day cycle. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: pineal gland Select any question to share it on FB or Twitter Just select (or double-click) a question to share. Challenge your Facebook and Twitter friends. The Hypophysis 11. In which bone cavity is the pituitary gland located? The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone (one of the bones at the base of the skull). Therefore, this gland is located within the head. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: the hypophysis 12. What are the main divisions of the hypophysis? What are their functions? The hypophysis is divided into two portions: the adenohypophysis, or anterior hypophysis, and the neurohypophysis, or posterior hypophysis. The adenohypophysis produces two hormones that act directly, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. It also produces four tropic hormones, that is, hormones that regulate other endocrine
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glands: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid- stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hormones produced in the hypothalamus, oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin). 13. What is the relationship between the hypothalamus and the hypophysis? The hypothalamus is a part of the brain located just above the hypophysis. The hypothalamus receives peripheral and central neural impulses that trigger the response of its neurosecretory cells. The axons of these cells descend into the adenohypophysis to regulate hypophyseal secretions by means of negative feedback. When the levels of adenohypophyseal hormones in the plasma are too high, the hypothalamus detects this information and commands the stoppage of the production of the hormone. When the blood level of an adenohypophyseal hormone is low, the hypothalamus stimulates the secretion of the hormone. Hypothalamic cells produce the hormones released by the neurohypophysis. These hormones are transported by their axons to the hypophysis and are then released into the circulation. The Endocrine System Review - Image Diversity: hypothalamus
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The Adenohypophysis 14. What hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis? What are their respective functions? The adenohypophysis secretes GH (growth hormone), prolactin, ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone), TSH (thyroid- stimulating hormone), FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone).
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