Singapore Fire Safety Engineering Guidelines 2015_1.pdf

Methodology for fed determination 1 fed is sampled at

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Methodology for FED determination (1) FED is sampled at the floor on fire and at all the entrances to places of safety (Eg: Doors to staircases/smoke stop lobby or doors to the external). These are areas where queuing is expected to take place. Snap shots of egress modelling would need to be submitted to SCDF to show when queuing has reached the peak. This is to justify areas where FED sampling will be carried out. (2) Calculate or model the queuing domain and another 5 m away for the FED sampling. Figure 3.3 - FED Sampling
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24 (3) FED shall not be taken too near any air intake openings. As a guide, this shall be at least 5 m away from any air intake openings. (4) The sampling devices shall be spaced adequately close for better resolution. As a guide, the maximum placement distance between sampling devices (for measuring temperature, CO, CO 2 , O 2 , etc) for FED sampling shall not exceed 1m. (5) Mark down on the plan and report where the FED sampling was taken. 3.4 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling With the advancement of performance-based fire engineering design, CFD is routinely used as an analysis tool as it possesses the ability to handle the complex geometries and characteristics of fire. In carrying out the CFD modelling, the following steps are recommended: CFD modelling (a) Define fire modelling goals To state clearly that the results of the CFD modelling shall be used to justify the performance based design. Define fire modelling goals (b) Characterise the fire scenarios Characterise the relevant fire scenarios from fire ignition, growth, detection, fire suppression and smoke control (if applicable). Selected scenarios should represent a complete set of fire conditions that are important to test the robustness of the proposed fire engineering design. These are discussed further below: Characterising the fire scenarios
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25 (i) Enclosure Define the enclosure being studied in the CFD modelling. The enclosure details should include the identity of the enclosures that belong in the fire model analysis, the physical dimensions of the enclosures included in the fire model, and the boundary conditions of each enclosure. Enclosures (ii) Fire Locations The fire locations used in the CFD modelling shall follow the proposed fire locations established from earlier sections of this guideline. Fire Locations (iii) Fire Characteristics The source fire is the critical input for the fire scenario and is often described as the “ignition source.” The source fire is typically characteri sed by a heat release rate though other important aspects include the physical dimensions of the burning object, its composition, and its behaviour when burning. The heat release rate may be specified as a continuous function of time (e.g. a t 2 fire), or it may be an array of heat release rate and time data.
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