Sbh 20 large brains support individual recognition

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SBH 2.0 – large brains support individual recognition and social memory (pairbonding = long-term stable relationships) Primates then generalized the cognitive processes involved in pairbonding to all group members No difference in brain volume
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What's so unique in primates? Social intelligence/theory of mind Primates are good at remembering which group members did what, when, who they did it with, and who they did it to Many primates have some understanding that other group members are distinct entities with knowledge and experiences different fro their own (theory of mind). Humans have evolved to occupy a unique ecological niche that takes advantage of large brains and their higher processing power Specialized on intra-group cooperation and behavioral flexibility How can primates and especially humans afford to invest so much energy into their large brains? (proximate causation) Expensive tissue hypothesis Reduced energy investment in the gut, increased reliance on high quality food, increased energy available for brain growth/metabolism Longer developmental periods 'Late equals Large' – the later the development of a structure is, the larger it becomes Spend longer time developing October 12, 2012: Nervous System Development I (What is developmental biology?) Evolutionary biology studies changes in populations of organisms over time Development refers to the growth and maturation of individual organisms within their lifespans . Gross CNS development in vertebrates Neuralation → neural fold/neural plate → neural tube 3 vesicle stage 5 vesicle stage Neural tube folds over on itself during vertebrate brain development Neural tube differentiates into the mature CNS via several steps neurogenesis cell migration differentiation synaptogensis neuronal cell death synapse rearrangement Neurogenesis Generation of the cells that will form the CNS via mitosis of neuronal precursors (stem cells) Initial development proceeds via symmetrical mitosis of stem cell progenitors Stem cells divide in the ventricular zone into two identical daughter stem cells. Allows for very rapid Later development proceeds via asymmetrical mitosis Stem cells lose the ability to divide indefinitely via symmetrical division Further divisions each yield one progenitor cell and one cell fated to differentiate into neuron or glia At this stage , neuron number grows roughly linearly with each division Migration Process by which newly born neurons move out of the ventricular zone to their correct location in the developing brain Most neurons migrate along radial glia “Inside-out” migration inner layers of brain are getting laid down first
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Differentiation Refers to the process by which precursor cells in the neural tube develop into specific types of neurons or glia Depends on gene expression changes Affected by cell lineage and/or local signaling
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