Brain disease or injury-Decay -Replacement -Interference-Cue-dependent forgetting Decay-Memories fade with time if not accessed-Applies more to sensory and short-term memory than long-term memory
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-Further processing is required to avoid decay-Needed: neurologically based evidenceReplacement-New information may erase and replace old information in long-term memoryEx. Overwriting your assignment-Can lead to memory distortionsInterference -Similar items of information interfere with one another in either storage or retrieval -Thus, the info may be encoded and stored, but it becomes confused with other infoTwo Kinds of Interference:Retroactive: new information interferes with previously learned informationProactive: previously learned information interferes with new informationEx. Learning languageEx. Usual parking spot, late so have to park in new spot, go to normal spot Cue-Dependent Forgetting-Absence of retrieval cues can make recall difficult-Encoding specificity: retrieval cues that most closely match the situation in which the information was originally encoded are most helpful-Contextual cues (responsible for déjà-vu?)-State-dependent and mood-dependent memoryMood-Congruent Memory-If mood is parallel with experience and recall, the ability to recall with be might greater than if not in the same emotional stateMemory DistortionFlashbulb Memories-Feels like a ‘snapshot’ in time-Highly detailed and vivid-Usually associated with highly surprising or emotional event (note amygdala)Ex. Challenger explosion (1986); witnesses were interviewed immediately afterward; theywere interviewed three years later, and it was found that 50% remembered some details accurately, 50% remembered inaccuratelyEx. 9/11 (2001)Memory is Reconstructive-Memory is not like a video recording or a photograph of events-Rather, we construct a complete memory from bits and pieces in a way that makes sense to us-Because of this, memory is subject to distortionMemory Reconstruction-People often remember events incorrectly or fill in details that were not even there
-Misinformation Effect: recall of an event is altered by information gained since the event occurredEx. Loftus and Palmer’s classic study (1974)Showed subjects video of crashThen asked them to estimate how fast the car was going when it:Gp. A: smashed into the other car; estimated 65km/hGp. B: hit the other car; estimated 50km/hOther Memory Errors-Source Misattribution: did you tell me that, or was that someone else?-Confabulation:Did it happen to me or someone else; or did it even happen?-Reality Monitoring:did I just dream that or was it real?Implications of Memory Fallibility-Eyewitness testimony can be questioned-Confidence doesn’t equal accuracyInaccuracies can Creep in as a Result-Leading/suggestive questions or comments-Hearing other witnesses accounts-Hearing rumors or media reports-Seeing the supposed ‘perpetrator’ elsewhere (familiarity)-Pressure/encouragement to remember a certain way*see info on children’s testimony pg. 352-53
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