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United States, 2008). Several studies have been conducted to determine how exactly class, race, and gender matter in the production of crime and in criminal justice system. Studies have revealed that the minorities, especially the African-Americans are overrepresented in the criminaljustice system both as victims and as offenders (Nellis, Greene, Mauer & United States, 2008). There are several explanations for persistent racial, class and gender disparities in the justice system. These include; firstly, the minority juveniles are more likely to be disadvantaged in the juvenile justice system, hence creating a cumulative record of disadvantage over the life course. Secondly, police discretion results in higher arrest for the minorities. Thirdly, the war on drugs disadvantages the blacks. Finally, targeting the directly or indirectly the minorities for death penalties (Nellis, Greene, Mauer & United States, 2008).Racism in the criminal justice system can be reduced or combated through various ways. Firstly, implementation of cultural competency as core component in operations and training. This will include adoption of culturally-specific orientation training for police personnel working in areas with substantial numbers of minority group members. The training should introduce the police tothe residents, organizations, and cultural characteristics of the neighborhoods, to enhance their
understanding of the community culture (Nellis, Greene, Mauer & United States, 2008). Secondly, development and use of arrest alternatives. The law enforcers should look for other options available for citizens who are at risk of arrest but for whom arrest is not appropriate. Thiswill help to ensure that arrest alternatives are available in all neighborhoods, especially minority neighborhood (Nellis, Greene, Mauer & United States, 2008). Thirdly, development and implementation of race-sensitive policies and practices. Through development and adherence to exemplary protocols for all pretrial decisions using the standards developed by the National Association of Pretrial Services Agencies (NAPSA), the potential for racial disparity can be reduced. Fourthly, development and monitoring of race-sensitive prosecutorial guidelines. The authorities should develop race-sensitive guidelines for charging, discovery, bail/release recommendations, plea bargaining and prosecutorial diversion. Finally, encouragement of diversity in the legal profession. This may include recruitment of lawyers from the minority groups who will focus their attention on the problem of racial disparity in the criminal justice system (Nellis, Greene, Mauer & United States, 2008).