Seizures uncontrolled discharges of neurons can be

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Seizures- uncontrolled discharges of neurons, can be idiopathic or connected with other disorders Caused by spontaneous excessive discharge of neurons in the brain Caused by – inflammation, hypoxia, or bleeding in the brain Focal: related to the specific site or irritation Often manifested by involuntary repetitive movements or abnormal sensations (aura) Seizure disorders are characterized by recurrent seizures Epilepsy is the old term and rarely used today Many seizure disorders are idiopathic Precipitating factors, or triggers, of a seizure may include physical stimuli or biochemical stimuli Generalized Seizures Have multiple foci or origins in the brain and cause loss of consciousness Absences seizure (petit mal): more common in children, last for about 5-10 seconds and may occur may times during the day, brief loss of awareness and transient facial movements – child may stare into space for a moment then resume activity with no memory retained Tonic-clonic (grand mal) : may occur spontaneously or after simple-seizures there is a pattern with these types of seizures- Prodromal signs in some individuals; aura immediately before loss of consciousness, loss of consciousness, strong tonic muscle contraction, clonic stages with alternation muscles contraction and relaxation, contractions generally subside, postictal period is consciousness returns, confusion, fatigue, and then deep sleep Cerebral Palsy Group of disorders marked by motor impairment due to some type of brain damage (before birth, or after birthing) Caused by: Genetic mutations, abnormal fetal formation of functional brain areas, infection, hypoxia or brain damage in the perinatal period Signs or multiple factors Hypoxia or ischemia lead to major brain damage Placental complications, difficult delivery, ect Infection or metabolic abnormalities Hypoglycemia in mother or child The deterioration is in the body; it’s not in the brain Spina Bifida Neural tube defect Common developmental abnormality Posterior spinous vertebrae processes do not fuse resulting in permitting the meninges and spinal cord to herniated and neurologic impairment
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Spina bifida occulata : develops when the spinous process does not fuse, but herniation of the spinal cord and meninges does not occur (sometimes this can be operated on) (area is gone but not bubbled out) Meningocele: same as the bony defect, but herniation of the meninges through occurs through the defect and the meninges and CSF forms a sac on the surface Myelomeningocele: is the most serious form of spina bifida – the ballooned area is out and the spinal cord is in the balloon area meaning the injury is going to be where the spinal cord is going out Types of Spina Bifida appear to have a Multifactorial basis Diagnostic tests: alpha-fetoprotein elevated in maternal blood and done prenatally by ultrasound and/or amniotic fluid Signs & symptoms: Meningocele or myleomeningocele are visible Treatment:
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