Lecture 2 Articles.docx

O you cant reasonably draw conclusions from quasi

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o You can’t reasonably draw conclusions from quasi-experiments since there’s no random assignment Longitudinal study – study that follows the same group of individuals over time o Tracks the same people over a long period of time (weeks, months, or even years) o Costly to conduct – gets more expensive if you follow people for many years Survey – way of gathering info using old-fashioned questionnaires or the Internet o Reach a larger number of participants at a much lower cost o Surveys are typically used for correlational research – correlational research can be conducted w/o surveys Many practical concerns influence the decision to use one method over another o (1) Resource availability – how much time and money you have to invest in research Makes more sense to use cheaper and faster method for exploratory research o (2) Ethics – unethical for researchers to inflict impairments on healthy participants Many areas of research cannot be ethically experimentally manipulated Strength of scientific finding lies in strength of its methodology
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Conducting Psychology Research Article Lab experiment is usually chosen for psychological science due to ability to determine cause-and-effect relationship o Only lab experiments clearly separate cause from effect & establish causality o Can yield findings that are out of touch w/ reality & have limited use in understanding real-world behavior Generalize – ability to arrive at broad conclusions based on a smaller sample of observations o For conclusions to be true, sample should accurately represent larger population from which it is drawn o “Experimentation in the lab occurs on an island quite isolated from the life of society” One important challenge for researchers is to find balance btwn ensuring internal validity & external validity o Internal validity – degree that a study allows unambiguous causal inferences o External validity – degree that a study ensures that potential findings apply to settings & other samples It is hard to achieve both internal and external validity at the same time o Controlled settings are bound to create an environment different from what people naturally encounter o Degree to which an experimental situation is comparable to real world situations determines generalizability Psychology emphasizes internal validity over external validity due to importance of true causal relationships o Researchers complement traditional lab research w/ field research to make claims about human behavior o Field studies allow for test of how psychological variables and processes of interest ‘behave” under real -world circumstances (what actually does happen rather than what can happen ) Psychoneuroimmunology – study of interplay of psychological factors and immune system o These studies show how psychological factors affect health-relevant biological processes o They remain mute about the degree that the factors actually do undermine people’s health in real life Researchers must complement lab experiments w/ less controlled studies under real world circumstances Ecological validity – degree that a finding was obtained under conditions typical
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  • Spring '08
  • Psychology, Causality, researchers, Correlational Research, Study w/ experience

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