of opium and realized that the forbidden trading was causing money to leave his

Of opium and realized that the forbidden trading was

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of opium and realized that the forbidden trading was causing money to leave his country and that his citizens were becoming addicted to the drug. This addiction caused productivity to go down and also caused an increase in crime in his provenances. It is unclear how many people in China were addicted to opium but “estimates range from a million to 40 million” (Watts, 2013). The emperor believed that these were legitimate reasons to try and stop the opium coming into China. In order to stop the trade, the emperor sent one of his government officials named Lin Zexu to try and stop opium imports. Lin attempted to correspond with Queen Victoria in a letter; in his letter to her he questioned her morals judgments in allowing opium trading. In 1839, the Chinese
OPIUM WARS 3 government decided to “seize and burn 20,000 crates of opium” (Getz & Brook, 2012) which led to the beginning of the first Opium War between China and Great Britain. The Chinese were defeated terribly by the British in the first Opium War which resulted in the Treaty of Nanjing. The Treaty of Nanjing required that the Chinese to cede the island of Hong Kong to Britain. Article III of the Treaty of Nanjing states: “His Majesty the Emperor of China cedes to her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc, the Island of Hong-Kong, to be possessed in perpetuity by her Britannic Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, and to be governed by such Laws and Regulations as Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, etc, shall see fit to direct” (

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