Example sleepy grass the alkaloids cause the horses

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example: sleepy grass- the alkaloids cause the horses to sleep and get tired o Lichesn- symbiosis between fungi and algae- lichens are able to colonize and survive in habitats where larger plants cannot survive because the fungi provide both a means to take up water and nutrients in an environments with no soil and provides physical protection against harsh elements  high artic areas, high alpine areas (cold) o Corals:symbiosis anthozoan(animals) and zooaxhellea (algae) these animals symbiotic algae within their tissue - they produce carbs from their host symbiotic algae within their tissues – algae get shelter and nutrients from anthozonanz. Evolutionary successful in coral leaf communities, o Symbiotic plants that form relationships with bacteria that fix nitrogen- so the biggest reservoir of nitrogen is in the atmosphere, but it is unusable form of nitrogen. N needs to be fixed and special groups of bacteria can do this so that nitrogen can be used for the plants. Nitrogen fixing bacteria- the enzyme they use to create useful nitrogen so oxygen poisonous to them so they can only create nitrogen in oxygen free env- they have compartments that are very thickly walled that can capture oxygen so the interior is oxygen free  allows the bacteria to produce nitrogen. The plants give carbs to the bacteria and the plant makes inorganic nitrogen. Its very important because it helps produce crops more o Commensalism- one species benefits for the action of a species while this other is unaffected. Its very rare. o Example: Water buffalo and egret. As water buffalo walks they leave these huge holes in the soil which causes insets to be seen, the egret go to the areas where WB has recently stopped and will be at the soil insect that have been exposed by the feet of the water buffalo. These egrets hitch a ride on top of the WB they have eyes higher. If these egret ever respond to predators leaping o attach. These egrets see such a change earlier than water buffalo- if they stare startled, they provide an easier signal that the water buffalo is in danger. It will change the relationship from mutualism to commensalism o Tropic Structure: who eats who? This series of relationship is termed a food a web and the order in which these interactions occur describe trophic structure: key factor in the dynamics of communities. The linkages of who eats who form food chains. It starts from a producer level and proceeds through consumer level. Primary producers (plants vs phytoplankton  primary consumers (herbivore vs zooplankton) secondary consumers (carnivore vs carnivore) tertiary consumers (carnivore vs carnivore) quaternary consumers (carnivore vs carnivore) o At every level in a food web you have detritivores: species that consume the metabolic waste of each level of the food web and the body parts that have died – unseen in the food web o Earth recyclers: you can have dead plant, anal waste building up- the decomposers are important recycling nutrients in ecosystem. At the microbial level – decomposers bacteria and fungi. Larger

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