Results at least as much from perceiving that ones

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Results at least as much from perceiving that One’s own group is good (Brewer, 2007) as from a sense that Other groups are bad (Rosenbaum & Holtz, 1985) Even when there is no “them” One can come to love “us” Positive feelings for our own groups need not be mirrored by equally strong negative feelings for outgroups ((Gaertner & others, 2006) o Need for status, self-regard and belonging One psychological benefit of prejudice Feeling of superiority People whose status is secure Have less need to feel superior Thinking about your own mortality provokes enough insecurity To intensify ingroup favoritism and outgroup prejudice Promote liking for racist who argue for their group’s superiority (Greenberg & others, 2001) With death on their minds People exhibit terror management People’s self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) When confronted with reminders of their mortality Shield themselves from the threat of their own death by derogating those who further arouse their anxiety by challenging their worldviews When people are already feeling vulnerable about their mortality Prejudice helps bolster a threatened belief system Lead people to pursue communal feelings such as togetherness and altruism (McGregor & others, 2001) Connection between self-image and prejudice Affirm people and they will evaluate an outgroup more positively Threaten their self-esteem and they will restore it by denigrating an outgroup (Fein & Spencer, 1997; Spencer & others, 1998)
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Nature of an outgroup threat influences perceptions of the outgroups (Cottrell & Neuberg, 2005; Maner & others, 2005) When the safety of one’s ingroup is threatened People will be vigilant for signs of outgroup anger Despised outgroups can also serve to strengthen the ingroup Perception of a common enemy unites a group - Motivation to avoid prejudice o Try as we might to suppress unwanted thoughts Sometimes refuse to go away Especially for older adults who lose some of their ability to inhibit unwanted thoughts and therefore to suppress old stereotypes o People low and high in prejudice sometimes have similar automatic prejudicial responses (Devine & others, 1989) Unwanted (dissonant) thoughts and feelings often persist o Encountering a minority person may trigger a knee-jerk stereotype Seeking not to appear prejudiced People may divert their attention away from the person (Richeson & Trawalter, 2008) Vanman and colleagues (1990) White people viewed slides of White and Black people Imagined themselves interacting with them Rated their probable liking of the person Although the participants saw themselves liking the Black more than the White persons Their facial muscles told a different story Instruments revealed that when a Black face appeared There tended to be more activity in frowning than smiling muscles An emotion processing center in the brain also
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