B the requirement that unneeded workers be retained

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B. the requirement that unneeded workers be retained on a job. C. the refusal by one union to handle or transport goods produced by workers in another union. D. disputes among two or more unions as to which will perform certain jobs. 237.Available research suggests that the union wage advantage diminishes the national output by: A. 10 percent. B. 15 percent. C. 5 percent. D. less than 1 percent. 238.Suppose a worker feels unhappy with his job and consequently quits. This illustrates: A. the voice mechanism. B. featherbedding. C. the exit mechanism. D. blacklisting. 239.The voice mechanism is important because it may: A. reduce worker turnover and increase productivity. B. increase worker mobility. C. increase the number of strikes. D. conflict with the Taft-Hartley Act. Assumptions: These two graphs show two sectors of the labor market for a particular kind of labor. Relevant product markets are competitive. The two labor demand curves are identical and initially the quantities of labor employed in the two sectors are L 1 and L' 1 and the wage rate in each sector is Wn .
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240.Refer to the above diagram and assumptions. If a union is formed in sector 1 and the union increases the wage rate from W n to W u , then employment will: A. decrease, but we cannot determine by how much. B. decrease by 0 L 2 in sector 1. C. decrease by L 1 L 2 in sector 1. D. increase by L 1 L 2 in sector 1. 241.Refer to the above diagrams and assumptions. The change in employment in sector 1 to which a W n to W u union wage increase gives rise will cause output in that sector to: A. decrease by A + B . B. decrease by B + C + D . C. decrease by C + D . D. increase by A + B . 242.Refer to the above diagrams and assumptions. If all the workers who lose their jobs in the union sector because of a W n to W u union wage increase are reemployed in nonunion sector 2, output in that sector will: A. decrease by F + G . B. increase by F + G . C. increase by E + F . D. increase by E . 243.Refer to the above diagrams and assumptions. This analysis suggests that a union wage advantage of W u minus W s causes a net efficiency: A. loss equal to E - A . B. loss equal to C . C. gain equal to C . D. gain equal to B . 244.Empirical studies suggest that the efficiency loss associated with the misallocation of labor caused by the union wage advantage is: A. $6 billion per year. B. about 2 percent of domestic output. C. less than one-half of one percent of domestic output. D. about 4 percent of domestic output. 245.Critics of unions argue that unions diminish efficiency and productivity by: A. engaging in featherbedding. B. precipitating strikes. C. causing a misallocation of labor. D. doing all of these.
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B the requirement that unneeded workers be retained on a...

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