AI Adequate Intake recommends specific amounts of nutrients for individuals UL

Ai adequate intake recommends specific amounts of

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AI: Adequate Intake/ recommends specific amounts of nutrients for individuals UL: Tolerable Upper Level Intake/ help with the prevention of nutrient toxicities EER: Estimated Energy Requirement/ can be used to calculate kcalories needed to ensure a stable weight in a healthy individual AMDR: Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges/ are expressed as ranges, or proportions, of nutrients for healthy intake Daily values: food labels list amounts of certain macro and micronutrients based on a 2000 kcal diet. DRIS: dietary reference intakes Can be used to plan diets Assess the adequacy of diets Make judgments about excessive intakes for individuals and populations ATOMS AND MOLECULES Structure of the atom: Atoms are made up of subatomic particles >protons(+), neutrons (uncharged) and electrons (-) / protons and neutrons are inside the nucleus, electrons around the nucleus. Identify atoms by their atomic numbers and atomic mass numbers: atomic # = # of protons (bottom number) / atomic mass = # of protons + # of neutrons (top number) Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons if nuclear notation is provided: Ion: an atom that has a positive or a negative charge because it has unequal numbers of protons Electron shell diagrams: 1st contains 2 electrons, 2nd and 3rd contains 8 electrons
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Isotopes: atoms of the same element with differing numbers of neutrons Anions: negative Cations: positive Ionic bond: complete transfer Covalent bond: two atoms share electrons Polar covalent bond: if the sharing between two atoms is unequal Non-polar covalent bond: equal sharing between two atoms Bonding for H2O: polar covalent Bonding for CH4: non polar covalent Bonding for O2: double covalent bond - results from sharing two pairs of electrons Oxidation state of carbon: 4 Functional groups: carboxylic acid - O, OH, C / ketone group - O, C / aldehyde group - O, C, H / alcohol group - CH, OH Acidic: pH below 7 Neutral: pH is 7 Basic: pH above 7 Definition of an acid: substances that release hydrogen ions when they dissociate in water Chapter 3 the organization of life from atoms to organisms: atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms Digestion: the process of breaking food into components small enough to be absorbed into the body Absorption: the process of taking in substances into the interior of the body Enzymes and hormones in digestion: enzymes are protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions: enzymes are not changed during reactions./ hormones: peptide hormones - short amino acid sequences chemical messengers ( do not directly participate) glucocorticoids Organs in the GI tract:
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  • Spring '18
  • Macy Shen

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