Stratification • Refrigerated Stratification • Stratification is accomplished by placing seeds in moist planting medium in a cold environment (2 weeks to 3 months). • Seeds require moisture, cold and oxygen. • In general, this period of time allows an undeveloped embryo to mature.
Stratification • Outdoor Stratification • Seeds are kept outdoors through the winter in lined pits or raised beds. • Must be protected from freezing, drying and rodent predation (use wire netting in the soil). • Pits or beds are layered with clean sand, medium with seeds, more clean sand, etc.
Fruit Development • Fruit is a mature of ripen ovary formed after fertilization • After double fertilization ovary developed into fruit and ovule form seeds. • A fruit may contain one or more seeds. • Fruit provide protection for the enclosed seeds. • During fruit development, the wall of ovary becomes pericarp , the thickened wall of fruit. • The fruit usually ripens about the same as its seed are completing their development. • Parthenocarpic fruit is the formation without fertilization ovary and it is seedless. • This occurs in plant species that have many ovules in their ovary such as banana.
From ovary to fruit • The ovary of the flower contains the ovules. • As fertilized ovules develop into seeds, the ovary wall develops into the fruit. • The term “fruit” refers to a mature ovary that contains seeds .
Parts of fruit The three fruit layers are: • Exocarp: the outermost layer often consisting of only the epidermis • Mesocarp: or middle layer , which varies in thickness • Endocarp: which shows considerable variation from one species to another
Types of fruits Simple fruit Compound fruit Aggregate fruit Multiple fruit Accessory fruit
Types of ovaries • Superior Ovary • Hypogynous Flower • True Fruit Only • Half-Superior Ovary • Perigynous Flower • True + Accessory Fruit • Inferior Ovary • Epigynous Flower • True + Accessory Fruit
Types of fruits A. Simple fruit • develops from a single ovary of a single flower ; • may be either dry or fleshy when mature 1. Simple fleshy fruits a) Berry • entire fruit wall is soft and fleshy at maturity • Eg: grapes and tomatoes) b) Drupe • outer part of fruit wall is soft and fleshy, • inner part is hard and stony • Eg: coconut and peach c) Capsule • dry at maturity and splits open along several seams • Eg: okra (ladies fingers)
2. Simple dry fruits a) Legume • dry at maturity and splits open along two seams • Eg: peas, beans b) Grain • dry at maturity; • contains single seed; • seed coat is fused to fruit wall • Eg: corn, wheat, rice c) Nut • single-seeded fruit in which the ovary wall and seed coat remain separate • Eg: chestnut, walnut Types of fruits
Types of fruits B.
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- Spring '19