Cryptic coloration camoflauge make prey difficult to se Aposematic coloration

Cryptic coloration camoflauge make prey difficult to

This preview shows page 11 - 12 out of 12 pages.

Cryptic coloration (camoflauge): make prey difficult to se Aposematic coloration: animals with effective chemical defenses. Creating warning colors (Bright colors) Batesian mimicry:a harmless species mimics a harmful one Mullerian mimicry: two unpalatable species mimic each other (both are poisonous and bad) ( a form of aposematic coloration) o Herbivory( +/-): when an organisms ears parts of a plant (this is basically predation but the predator is an herbivore and the prey is a plant) Plant adapatations: chemical toxins, spines, thorns o Symbiosis: When individuals of two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another Parasitism(+/-): one organism (parasite) derives its nourishment from another organism (host) which is harmed Endoparasites: live within their host Ectoparasites: feed on external surface of host Parasites can weaken their host and cause their chance of survival to lower Mutualism(+/+) interspecific interaction that benefits both species Ex: nitrogen fixation by bacteria in the root nodules of legumes Ex: mycorrhizae Obligate nutualism: one species depends on the other for survival Facultative mutualism: both species can live alone Commensalism (+/0): interaction between species that benefits one of the species but neither harms or helps the other It is difficult to document because any close association between species likely affects both of them Some associaitons could involve one species obtaining food that is exposed by another on accident o Facilitation(+/+): positive effects on the survival and reproduction of other species without living in drect contact of a symbiosis Common in plant ecology o All five types of interaction strongly influence the structure of communities Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities Communites are characterized by how diverse they are and the feeding relationship of their species
Image of page 11
Species diversity variety of different kinds of organisms that make up a community The 2 components of species diversity: o Species richness: number of different species in the community o Relative abundance proportion each species represents of all individuals in the community o Higher diversity communities generally are more productive and are better able to withstand and recover from environmental stresses o Invasive species: organisms that become established outside their native range o Invasive species are more likely to survive in lower diversity communities than in higher diversity one o Trophic structure: the structure and dynamics of a community also depends o Food chain: the transfer of food energy up the trophic levels from primary producers to tertiary consumers
Image of page 12

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 12 pages?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes