faster than the OECD median at 1.8% over 2007-11. The gov-ernment’s 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) sets the target forgreen productivity growth at 17% over the five-year period.The present 12th Five-Year-Plan for S&T Developmenttherefore focuses considerable attention on energy and cli-mate change and has triggered a new wave of industrialpolicies in support of clean energy industries and relatedlow-carbon technologies. Yet, China’s RTA in biotechnologyand green technologies has slipped considerably (Panel 3).Hot issue 4: Strengthening public R&D capacity and infra-structures.Although many PRIs became corporate entitiesas part of the reform of the S&T system in the early 2000s,PRIs still dominate China’s public research and are stronglyoriented towards applied and experimental R&D (Panel 4).The government issued “Opinions on Deepening theReform of the Scientific and Technological System andSpeeding up the Building of a National Innovation System”in September 2012. The new round of PRI reforms aims toclarify the roles of the three types of PRI (commercial inno-vation, social welfare and basic research), and to establishappropriate governance, management and funding mecha-nisms to fulfil their missions.Hot issue 5: Fostering high-end human resources for S&T andresearch.Although China has the world’s largest pool ofhuman resources for S&T, the tertiary-qualified share of thepopulation is still extremely low (Panel 1t). Furthermore,China lacks world-class researchers. Both the ThousandTalents Programme approved by the Organisation Depart-ment of the Chinese Communist Party and the 100 Talentsof the Chinese Academy of Sciences aim to attract andretain top-tier academics, including from overseas. TheKey figures, 2013Economic and environmental performanceCHNOECDGross domestic expenditure on R&DCHNOECDLabour productivityGERDGDP per hour worked, USD PPP, 2013n.a.47.7Million USD PPP, 2012293 5501 107 398(annual growth rate, 2008-13)n.a.(+0.8)As a % of total OECD, 201226.5100Green productivityGERD intensity and growthGDP per unit of CO2emitted, USD, 20111.33.0As a % of GDP, 20121.982.40(annual growth rate, 2007-11)(+4.1)(+1.8)(annual growth rate, 2007-12)(+17.2)(+2.0)Green demandGERD publicly financedNNI per unit of CO2emitted, USD, 2011n.a.3.0As a % of GDP, 2011n.a.0.77(annual growth rate, 2007-11)n.a.(+1.6)(annual growth rate, 2007-12)(+14.2)(+2.8)
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