8 over 2007 11 the gov ernments 12th five year plan

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faster than the OECD median at 1.8% over 2007-11. The gov- ernment’s 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) sets the target for green productivity growth at 17% over the five-year period. The present 12th Five-Year-Plan for S&T Development therefore focuses considerable attention on energy and cli- mate change and has triggered a new wave of industrial policies in support of clean energy industries and related low-carbon technologies. Yet, China’s RTA in biotechnology and green technologies has slipped considerably (Panel 3). Hot issue 4: Strengthening public R&D capacity and infra- structures. Although many PRIs became corporate entities as part of the reform of the S&T system in the early 2000s, PRIs still dominate China’s public research and are strongly oriented towards applied and experimental R&D (Panel 4). The government issued “Opinions on Deepening the Reform of the Scientific and Technological System and Speeding up the Building of a National Innovation System” in September 2012. The new round of PRI reforms aims to clarify the roles of the three types of PRI (commercial inno- vation, social welfare and basic research), and to establish appropriate governance, management and funding mecha- nisms to fulfil their missions. Hot issue 5: Fostering high-end human resources for S&T and research. Although China has the world’s largest pool of human resources for S&T, the tertiary-qualified share of the population is still extremely low (Panel 1 t ). Furthermore, China lacks world-class researchers. Both the Thousand Talents Programme approved by the Organisation Depart- ment of the Chinese Communist Party and the 100 Talents of the Chinese Academy of Sciences aim to attract and retain top-tier academics, including from overseas. The Key figures, 2013 Economic and environmental performance CHN OECD Gross domestic expenditure on R&D CHN OECD Labour productivity GERD GDP per hour worked, USD PPP, 2013 n.a. 47.7 Million USD PPP, 2012 293 550 1 107 398 (annual growth rate, 2008-13) n.a. (+0.8) As a % of total OECD, 2012 26.5 100 Green productivity GERD intensity and growth GDP per unit of CO 2 emitted, USD, 2011 1.3 3.0 As a % of GDP, 2012 1.98 2.40 (annual growth rate, 2007-11) (+4.1) (+1.8) (annual growth rate, 2007-12) (+17.2) (+2.0) Green demand GERD publicly financed NNI per unit of CO 2 emitted, USD, 2011 n.a. 3.0 As a % of GDP, 2011 n.a. 0.77 (annual growth rate, 2007-11) n.a. (+1.6) (annual growth rate, 2007-12) (+14.2) (+2.8)
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III.9. STI COUNTRY PROFILES: CHINA OECD SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRY OUTLOOK 2014 © OECD 2014 293 Figure 9.8. Science and innovation in China Note: Normalised index of performance relative to the median values in the OECD area (Index median = 100). 0 50 100 150 200 0 50 100 150 200 Public R&D expenditure (per GDP) (a) Top 500 universities (per GDP) (b) Publications in the top journals (per GDP) (c) Business R&D expenditure (per GDP) (d) Top 500 corporate R&D investors (per GDP) (e) Triadic patent families (per GDP) (f) Trademarks (per GDP) (g) Venture capital (per GDP) (h) Young patenting firms (per GDP) (i) Ease of entrepreneurship index (j) Top half OECD Bottom half OECD Top half OECD Bottom half OECD a. Competences and capacity to innovate Universities and public research R&D and innovation in firms Innovative entrepreneurship
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