Success and promotionimproving will provide more motivation Expectations and

Success and promotionimproving will provide more

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Success and promotion/improving will provide more motivation Expectations and Self-Efficacy: o When goals and values are in harmony – life is good o Approach-Approach Conflicts: Person is equally attracted to two goals o Avoidance-Avoidance Conflicts: Choose the lesser of the 2 disliked goals o Approach-Avoidance Conflicts: Most difficult to resolve because the person is both attracted and repelled by the same goal Prolonged conflict can lead to physical symptoms and reduced well being o Maslow believed that human motives could be ranked in a hierarchy of needs (basic needs to self-actualization) but is not supported empirically o Recent approaches say that people have four major psychological needs: Autonomy: make choices on your true interests and values Competence: feeling able to master challenges Relatedness: feeling close to others who are important to you
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Self-Esteem: having self-respect REPEATED NOTES (taken from class) Types of Goals - Approach goals: desire outcomes or experiences Ex. “I want to get a good grade” - Avoidance goals: avoiding unpleasant experiences Ex. “I don’t want to fail the course” Successful Goal Setting - Its best to frame goals in terms of getting what you want rather than avoiding what you do not want - Why? Approach goals help you focus better on what you can actively so and on the intrinsic rewards of achieving a goal Types of Goals You Set Affect Success - Mastery (learning) goals: focus is on learning the task well - Performance goals: focus is on doing well for others - People who set performance goals tend to get discouraged and give up more easily Other Contributors to Success - Self-Control: the ability to regulate attention, emotion, and behavior in the presence of temptation Ability to forego smaller, sooner rewards to pursue larger, later rewards This can be practiced - Self-Efficacy: the feeling that one can be effective in achieving goals Acquired through experience in mastering new skills, overcoming obstacles, leaning from failures Can also be developed - Expectations: positive vs negative Can create self-fulfilling prophecies of success or failure – vicious circle Ex. Children given unsolvable math problems were later unable to solve easy ones External Factors that Affect Work Motivation - Work motivation also depends on job conditions, not just individual differences - One factor: proportion of men and women in an occupation – can lead to stereotypes regarding abilities of men and women in the field Working Conditions that Promote Motivation and Satisfaction - Meaningfulness, control, variation, support, clear and consistent rules, feedback, opportunities, incentive pay The Pursuit of Happiness - People are not good at predicting: What will make them happy What will make them miserable, and at
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Estimating how long those feelings will last The Misprediction of Emotion (FIG 12.1) - Having intrinsically enjoyable experiences makes most people happier than wealth and possessions Goals in Conflict -
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