treatments such as psychological therapy has been shown to be beneficial (Chey et al., 2015). Patient Factor: Gender Gender plays a significant role in IBS, with a higher prevalence of women reporting symptoms than men and noted more during youth and middle age (Canavan et al., 2014; Huether, 2017). Constipation and abdominal pain with IBS are more prominent in women, while men complain more of diarrhea (Huether, 20174). Women diagnosed with IBS often have been verbally, sexually, or physically abused (Chey et al., 2015). However, both genders have an equal representation in the diagnosis of IBD (Huether, 2017). References Canavan, C., West, J., & Card, T. (2014). The epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical Epidemiology, 2014 (6), 71-80. doi:10.2147/CLEP.S40245 Chey, W. D., Kurlander, J., & Eswaran, S. (2015). Irritable bowel syndrome: A clinical review. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 313 (9), 949-958. doi:10.1001/jama. 2015.0954
Huether, S. E. (2017). Alterations of digestive function. In S. E. Huether & K. L. McCance (Eds.), Understanding pathophysiology (6 th ed., pp. 906-949). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Fakhoury, M., Negrulj, R., Morranian, A., & Al-Salami, H. (2014). Inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical aspects and treatments. Journal of Inflammation Research, 2014 (7), 113-120. doi:10.2147/jir.s65979 Matsuoka, K., & Kanai, T. (2014). The gut microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease. Seminars in Immunopathology, 37 (1), 47-55. doi:10.1007/s00281-014-0454-4 Mills, J. C., & Stappenbeck, T. S. (2014). Gastrointestinal disease. In G. D. Hammer & S. J. McPhee (Eds.), Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (7 th ed., pp. 333-383). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
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