Total productivity measure tpm it is based on all the

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Total Productivity Measure (TPM) It is based on all the inputs. The model can be applied to any manufacturing organization or service company. Total tangible output Total productivity =-------------------- Total tangible input Total tangible output = Value of finished goods produced + Value of partial units produced + Dividends from securities + Interest + Other income Total tangible input = Value of (human + material + capital + energy + other inputs) used. The word tangible here refers to measurable. The output of the firm as well as the inputs must be expressed in a common measurement unit. The best way is to express them in rupee value. Partial Productivity Measures (PPM) Depending upon the individual input partial productivity measures are expressed as: Total output Partial productivity = ----------------- Individual input Total output Labour productivity = ---------------- Labour input Labour input is measured in terms of man-hours Total output Capital productivity = ---------------- Capital input Total output Material productivity = --------------- Material input Total output Energy productivity = ----------------- Energy input
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177 One of the major disadvantage of partial productivity measures is that there is an over emphasis on one input factor to the extent that other input are underestimated or even ignored. 12.3.5.2 Productivity Improvement Techniques a. Technology Based 1) Computer Aided Design (CAD) , Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), and Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems (CIMS): CAD refers to design of products, processes or systems with the help of computers. The impact of CAD on human productivity is significant for the advantages of CAD are: a. Speed of evaluation of alternative designs, b. Minimisation of risk of functioning, and c. Error reduction. Technology Based Material Based Product Based Productivity Improvement Techniques Employee Based Process Based Task Based 12.4 : Productivity Improvement Techniques CAM is very much useful to design and control the manufacturing. It helps to achieve the effectiveness in production system by line balancing. a) Production Planning and Control b) Capacity Requirements Planning (CRP), Manufacturing Resources Planning (MRP II) and Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) c) Automated Inspection. 2) Computer integrated manufacturing: Computer integrated manufacturing is characterized by automatic line balancing, machine loading (scheduling and sequencing), automatic inventory control and inspection. a) Robotics b) Laser technology c) Modern maintenance techniques d) Energy technology e) Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) a. Employee Based a) Financial and non-financial incentives at individual and group level. b) Employee promotion. c) Job design, job enlargement, job enrichment and job rotation.
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178 d) Worker participation in decision-making e) Quality Circles (QC), Small Group Activities (SGA) f) Personal development. b. Material Based a) Material planning and control b) Purchasing, logistics c) Material storage and retrieval d) Source selection and procurement of quality material e) Waste elimination.
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