ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

An individual can use different criteria in making

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An individual can use different criteria in making ethical choices. The utilitarian criterion, is when decisions are made solely on the basis of their outcomes or consequences. The goal of utilitarianism is to provide the greatest good for the greatest number. This view tends to dominate business decision making. It is consistent with goals like efficiency, productivity, and high profits. The stages of moral development is an assessment of a person’s capacity to judge what is morally right. The higher one’s moral development, the less dependent he or she is on outside influences, and the more he or she will be predisposed to behave ethically. For instance, most adults are at a midlevel stage of moral development, and they’re strongly influenced by peers and will follow an organization’s rules and procedures. Those individuals who have progressed to the higher stages of development place increased value on the rights of others, regardless of the majority’s opinion, and are likely to challenge organizational practices they believe are personally wrong. Escalation of commitment is an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information. It has been well documented that individuals increase commitment to a failing course of action when they view themselves as responsible for the failure. That is, they “throw good money after bad” to demonstrate their initial decision wasn’t wrong and to avoid having to admit that they made a mistake . Many an organization has suffered large losses because a manager was determined to prove his original decision was right by continuing to commit resources to what was a lost cause from the beginning. Values are basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Individuals enter an organization with preconceived notions of what “ought” and what “ought not” to be. Values contain a judgmental element in that they carry an individual’s ideas about what is right, good, or desirable. Values have both content and intensity attributes. The content attribute says that a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. Values generally influence attitudes and behavior. A value hierarchy is a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. When we rank an individual’s values in terms of their intensity, we obtain that person’s value system. This system is identified by the relative importance we assign to such values as freedom, pleasure, self-respect, honesty, obedience, and equality. One of the earliest efforts to categorize values was made by Allport and his associates. Allport and his associates identified six types of values, which are: theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious. Allport and his associates developed a questionnaire
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