reason d \u00eatre iv DMO effectiveness in the pursuit of destination

Reason d être iv dmo effectiveness in the pursuit of

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reason d’ être ; iv) DMO effectiveness in the pursuit of destination competitiveness is discussed under the themes of destination brand identity development, destination positioning and marketing performance measurement tracking; v) the paper concludes with a summary of possible future research themes in the field. 2. UNDERSTANDING DESTINATION MARKETING RESEARCH: DELIMITING THE FIELD A destination represents an amalgam of a diverse and eclectic range of businesses and people, who might have a vested interest in the prosperity of their destination community; although
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4 research on small and micro businesses has indicated that not all stakeholders are necessarily interested in the viability of the destination, when their principal objective for operating a business is lifestyle (Thomas, Shaw & Page, 2011). Nevertheless, the success of individual tourism ventures and cooperatives will depend to some extent on the competitiveness of their destination (Pike, 2004) and the leadership of the amalgam of stakeholders associated with the tourism industries (Leiper, 2008). Emerging research empirically testing this proposition includes SMEs’ dependence on DMO resources in Finland (Seppala -Esser, Airey & Szivas, 2009) and hotel performance in Spain (Molina-Azorin, Periera-Moliner & Claver-Cortes, 2010). Therefore, if the main focus for marketing leadership of a destination is the DMO, then a critical understanding of the development of destination marketing by DMOs is vital to understanding the factors and circumstances that may constrain or facilitate the effective execution of their destination marketing function. In fact the marketing and promotion of destinations is now a ubiquitous activity, aided by the rise in new technological innovations such as social media which many destinations have harnessed in varying degrees (see for example Hays, Page and Buhalis, 2013 for a review of the rise of Web 2.0 and how DMOs have harnessed it). 2.1 Applied and fragmented nature of the destination marketing literature Much of the initial stimulus for destination marketing emerged from the germane area of tourism marketing, its evolution the subject of excellent syntheses (see for example Gilbert, 1989) which provided the foundations for the development of this more specialised literature focused on the destination. In a subsequent review by Ritchie (1996), it was argued that tourism marketing research had been undertaken by those with a market orientation. Likewise, destination marketing research has by its very nature been undertaken by academics with an interest in applied studies that address relevant challenges faced by practitioners, rather than pure or basic research. There are a number of exceptions such as Ashworth and Voogd (1990) which made very clear distinctions about the contribution of geography to place-marketing: such studies argued that places are unique and their marketing was not a simple process of translating conventional marketing theory and practice derived
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