Afghanistans ssr aims to improve the ability of

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Afghanistan’s SSR aims to improve the ability of Afghan security and law enforcement institutions in order to reduce the threats of renewed violence, the outbreak of banditry, and the culture of impunity that should help facilitate the transition of Afghan society from conflict and fragility to normalcy and development under the rule of law and free from narcotics. In nearly all the cases, SSR takes place under two general conditions: (i) When a country invests too heavily in its military (due to various reasons and perceived external and internal threats), but at some point reaches a point of economic stagnation. Similarly, when it reaches a peaceful solution, then SSR becomes a necessity such that the much-needed resources can be redirected towards social and economic development. (ii) When trusted national security sector institutions collapse, typically in post-conflict situations, as in Afghanistan, the society suffers from a heavily militarized environment. When a security vacuum undermines the rule of law and public confidence; SSR becomes a prerequisite to make state-building and development initiatives work. In the first case, the state institutions remain intact and the process involves downsizing, demobilization, re-integration, and often re-orientation to new democratic principles. On the other hand, SSR is much more complicated in the second case
CHAPTER 3 48 because besides DDR, the process involves the reconstruction of a deconstructed security system under a difficult, sensitive, and often, politically divided environment. In addition, in the first case, the agenda of SSR is driven internally and supported by external players. While in the second case, the agenda is often driven by external parties due to weak governance and full dependency on external resources, thereby adding to the complexity of the process. 3.2 Analysis of SSR in Afghanistan The Bonn Accord provided a framework to initiate SSR in Afghanistan, and consequently, the detailed agenda of the SSR was agreed upon in May 2002 at the G8 donor meeting. As shown in Table 4 , the lead donor approach was adopted for each pillar while the I-ANDS and the Afghanistan Compact, which were concluded during the London conference in January 2006, set the benchmarks for the five pillars of SSR. However, over the past two years, based on a more thorough analysis on the ground, some amendments of the original benchmarks have been proposed and made to during the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board (JCMB) meetings, as shown in Table 5 . Table 5: Changes in the Original Afghanistan Compact Benchmarks/Timelines Compact Benchmark Amended Timeline Amended Force Level Comments 1 By the end of 2010, a nationally respected and ethnically balanced national army will be fully established with a ceiling of 70,000 personnel.

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