For Group 1 rats learn the maze and was rewarded food for navigation from start

For group 1 rats learn the maze and was rewarded food

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For Group 1, rats learn the maze and was rewarded food for navigation from start to end. Food is placed in food box and separated. n By learning the maze with reward, first group showed that eventually rats learnt the maze and were able to do so without errors n For Group 2, rats were placed in maze but didn’t receive any rewards or reinforcements for completing the maze/ success. Although they got better, they still continued to make errors i.e. without rewards, there seem to be less to learn n For Group 3, rats learnt the maze but received no reward for first 10 days of learning and on 11 th day, they received a food reward. This was called delayed reward condition. A single reinforcement made rats learn the maze in few trials and almost make as few errors as Group 1 n Tolman then concluded that it’s unlikely they learn by rewards because when they weren’t given a reward, they were still motivated to learn for every trial. According to Tolman, they were learning cognitive map as internal representation of maze. This was the earliest evidence that internal representations give rise to behaviors n Decades after this pioneering study, simpler animals were shown to possess cognitive maps. German researcher showed that bees can locate source of food by forming an internal map about its location and using precise communication i.e. bees and waggle dance to tell the location of flowers n The duration of the waggle indicates the distance to nectar source. The longer the waggle, the further the flower. Angle
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of the dance tells the direction of the flower in relation to the sun n Another example is homing pigeons which have complex internal maps to return home from great distances n Left part of hippocampus plays an important role. Lesion to this region leads pigeons with impaired ability to return home. Right hippocampus is important for global features of environment such as geometry of space. Hippocampus is important for formation of human cognitive maps in spatial memory as well n In a study known as London Taxi Driver Study, taxi driver who has an impressive knowledge of route and maps was studied. In particular, researcher studied posterior hippocampus which is known to be essential for spatial memory. They did a brain scan of drivers before and after the training. They found that at the end of training, it grows physically larger. The maps they learnt reshaped drivers’ brain anatomy and longer training causes bigger in size n In a newer study, they found that drivers who passed the test had larger hippocampus compared to those who failed the test. They also found that while these drivers had excellent memory of maps and enlargement of hippocampus, it was at the expense of other visual abilities. The anterior hippocampus for visual memory was smaller for these people compared to control people. This suggests that in order to achieve great spatial cognitive maps, it takes away other related abilities Cognitive Maps and The Hippocampus l O’Keefe and Nadel focused on hippocampus to explain Tolman’s results in 1978 n
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