Peds Final Exam Study Guide p1.docx

Gu decreased urine 1st dol 24 hrs no urine red flag

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GU: decreased urine 1st DOL, 24 hrs no urine → red flag, min u.o. 2ml/kg/hr, hydrocele, circumcision, pseudomenstruation Musculoskeletal: hypertonic flexion, head lag, sacral dimple Integumentary: umbilical cord, milia, mottled skin, mongolian spot, telangiectatic nevi (stork bites), nevus flammeus (port wine stain) PURPLE Crying (P:peak 2 months, U:unexpected, R: resists soothing, P: pain- face, L:long-lasting, E:evening primarily Gross motor: 2-4 mos (good head control, support weight w/ arms); 4 -6 mos (no head lag, rolls ); 6 -8 mos ( sit w/o support , bounce legs); 8 -10 mos ( crawls, creeps , scoots, pull to stand); 9- 12 mos (stand alone, walk ) Fine motor: 2-4 mos (brings hands to midline, hold rattle), 4-6 mos (mouths objects, hold bottle), 6 -8 mos (bangs objects, transfers between hands ), 9 months (pincer grasp) , 10-12 mos (put objects in containers through holes, hold crayon) Red Flags: asymmetry in head, trunk, or extremities, stiffness or low tone, unable to maintain position against gravity, poor handling tolerance, poor oral motor control, difficulty feeding, diminished babbling, lack of tracking, no response to loud sound 8-9 mos → Object permanence (Piaget) Toddler G&D : 12-36 mos, explore, learn how things work, tolerate limitations, desires, autonomy, slowing growth (w: 5lbs/year, h: 3 in/yr), gender identity Systems Neuro: improved coordination, equilibrium, myelination of spinal cord complete Musculoskeletal: increased muscle, finger dexterity GI/GU: 33 mos, all deciduous teeth in, self-feeding, bladder/bowel control Cardio/Resp: small airways Sensory: vision 20/20-40, depth perception Milestones: 9-15 mos (walking, red flag if not walking by 18 mos ), balanced by 36 mos, 15 mos (grasping spoon), 18 mos (drinking from cup), 2 yrs (walk up/down stairs), 3 yrs (tricycle) , 12-15 mos (speaks own language), 36 mos (300-900 words, 2-3 phrases, 3-5 word sentences), parallel play Red flags: understandable <50% of the time, limited social interaction, vocab <50 words, unable to combine 2 words, unable to build tower of 4 cubes, unable to run or kick ball Preschooler G&D : new initiative, understand/speak clearly, slowed physical growth, body systems mature (nighttime bladder control by 3yo), double birth height by 4 yo, half of adult H by 5 yo, increased vocab 3-4 sentences, associative play School-aged G&D : cooperative play Systems Musculoskeletal: w/h increase, refine 6 basic gross motor (balance, catch, throw, run, jump, climb) 6
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Cardio/resp: increased efficiency to meet increased activity, decreased HR, tidal volume doubles Dental: deciduous teeth start shedding @ 5yo, 1st permanent @ age 6 Immune: acquired immunity fully developed by 6 yo Sexual development: puberty average 12 yo F, 14 yo M Gross/Fine motor: 6-7 (print letters, bike, bathe, dress, tie shoes, utensils); 8-9 (hand-eye coordination, sports, self dress, draw 3d); 10-12 (catch ball, balance one foot 15 seconds) Cognitive (concrete): 6-7 (tell time, read, R and L, money), 8-9 (time concept, date, month, space, cause, effect, punctual), 10-12 (abstract thinking, story writing, detailed drawing, truthful, know limits)
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  • Spring '14
  • CelesteAlfes
  • Mucus, Bicarbonate, respiratory disease, Sudden infant death syndrome

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