103 the challenge of tradition 17501900 naples In Naples all projects of

103 the challenge of tradition 17501900 naples in

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103 the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900
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naples In Naples, all projects of Bourbon reform were continued by the Napoleonic administration into the nineteenth century, guided not by royal pleasure but by a bureaucratic mandate of the civic council established in 1806.The Foro Carolino was completed, the Albergo dei Poveri staffed, the cemetery enlarged, and streets all around these sites “rectified.” Joseph Bonaparte founded the botanical gardens next to the Albergo, assembling several private collectors’ cabinets for public display. Giuliano de Fazio designed its greenhouse in 1809 with heavy Doric columns, after the similar project in Palermo. Private construction among Naples’s nascent professional class showed its first tentative signs of life under Napoleonic induction. While a new generation of decorators worked diligently in the vast interiors of Caserta, Joseph took up residence in the old Palazzo Reale downtown. From his front windows, he viewed a motley array of structures set around an open area known as the largo .The unimpressive view was fantastically transformed in many public celebrations, such as Ferdinando IV’s temporary return in 1799 and the coronation of Murat in 1808.The new king decreed an architectural competition to rebuild the largo definitively as the “Foro Murat.”The encompassing churches were demolished and each competition contestant proposed appropriately civil institutions as substitutes: a courthouse, an exhibition hall, a temple of illustrious persons.The proposal by the local architect, Leopoldo Laperuta, was favored and construction of his half-elliptical Corinthian colonnade progressed.Yet it remained only at its foundations when Murat fell and Ferdinando returned from Sicily in 1814. The forum project continued under the new administration, only its name was changed to “Foro Ferdinandeo.”Another competition was declared and its jurying was deferred to outside experts: the academicians in Rome, Bonsignore in Turin, and Cagnola in Milan. Cagnola then autocratically demoted all the competition entries and advanced a project drawn up by one of his own students, Pietro Bianchi. Ferdinando, like his father Carlos, was prepared to overthrow any local talent for the semblance of a cosmopolitan foreign architect, and Bianchi was invited to Naples. 104 the architecture of modern italy
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the challenge of tradition, 1750–1900 2.9 Pietro Bianchi, Foro Murat (later Foro Ferdinandeo, now Piazza del Plebiscito), with the Church of San Francesco di Paola, Naples, 1817–31 2.10 Antonio Niccolini,Teatro San Carlo, Naples, 1809–10
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On Laperuta’s foundations, Bianchi erected a Doric order that framed an Ionic portico for the restored ecclesiastical seat, San Francesco di Paola.The crisp volumes of the church’s exterior constituted an interpretation of the Pantheon, contemporaneous with Bonsignore’s in Turin.With subsidiary domed chapels and motifs drawn from Saint Peter’s, paradigms of Christian and classical architecture were merged. Bianchi’s work was solid if unsubtle, correct in geometry if poor in poetry. It pleased few besides
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  • Spring '17
  • Archt. De Veyra

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